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Psychology 320: Psychology of Gender and Sex Differences November 29 Lecture 31. Office Hour Invitations November 29, 11:30-2:30, Kenny 3102. 33467101 38536124 43570100 43601103 66605080 71025134 73594095. Exam 2: December 5, 2013 3:30-6:00, CIRS 1250.

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Psychology 320: Psychology of Gender and Sex DifferencesNovember 29

Lecture 31


Office Hour InvitationsNovember 29, 11:30-2:30, Kenny 3102

33467101

38536124

43570100

43601103

66605080

71025134

73594095


Exam 2: December 5, 20133:30-6:00, CIRS 1250

  • The exam is worth 20% of your final grade.

  • The exam will be scored out of 50 points: 20 multiple choice questions (1 point each), 6-8 extended response questions (2-8 points each, estimated; totaling 30 points).

3


  • Please arrive on time to facilitate rapid distribution of the exams.

  • Bring a pencil, eraser, pen, and student ID to the exam.

  • All electronic devices must be stored prior to the exam.

  • Bags and backpacks should be left at the front of the room. Valuables may be placed under your seat.

  • Turn in extra copies of the exam at the start of the examination period; university policy requires that all exams be accounted for before students are permitted to leave the examination room.

4


Chapters 5-8.

All material discussed in class since October 28.

  • Reminder: In the case of a discrepancy between the material presented in the textbook and the material presented in class, please rely upon the material presented in class for the purpose of exam preparation.

5


Announcement the exams.

I will hold additional office hours and an exam review session in preparation for the exam:

Friday, November 29: 11:30-2:30 (Kenny 3102)

Tuesday, December 3: 12:00-2:00 (Kenny 3102)

Tuesday, December 3: 3:00-4:00 (Kenny 2101, “Q&A” exam review session)

Wednesday, December 4: 1:00-3:00 (Kenny 3102)

6


Emotion the exams.

1. Are there sex differences in emotional expression? (continued)

2. What is restrictive emotionality?


By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: the exams.

1. review research findings regarding sex differences in emotional expression.

2. discuss the relationship between gender and emotional expression.

3. define the terms restrictive emotionality and alexithymia.

4. discuss the correlates of restrictive emotionality.


Are there sex differences in emotional expression? (continued)

  • Display rules encourage the expression of powerless emotions (e.g., sadness, fear, guilt) by females and the expression of powerful emotions (e.g., anger, contempt, pride) by males (e.g., Safdar et al., 2009).


Kring and Gordon (1998) (continued)

  • Asked participants to complete the BSRI.

  • Examined participants’ emotional expression in response to film clips designed to evoke distinct emotional experiences.


Frequency (continued)

Frequency of Expressions by Sex (Kring and Gordon, 1998)


Frequency (continued)

Frequency of Expressions by Gender Role Classification (Kring and Gordon, 1998)


What is restrictive emotionality? (continued)

  • Refers to limited emotional expression among individuals.

  • Associated with masculinity; accordingly, is more common among males than females.

  • Is fostered through observation of models, interpersonal familial dynamics, and social rewards and punishments.


Mike, I’ve been so upset since we had that argument, I could hardly sleep last night. Are you sure you’re really not mad at me?

Jim, I’m so relieved …. I was just as afraid that you’d be mad at me!


  • anxiety and depression.

  • relationship difficulties.

  • homophobia.

  • physiological distress (e.g., increased blood pressure).

  • alexithymia.

  • use of “immature” ego defenses (e.g., displacement, denial vs. anticipation, sublimation).

  • anger.


Cohn et al. (2009): Found that males who are high in RE are more likely than males who were low in RE to exhibit aggression.

  • Chronic anger is associated with increased incidence of hypertension, heart attack and stroke.


By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: system.”

1. review research findings regarding sex differences in emotional expression.

2. discuss the relationship between gender and emotional expression.

3. define the terms restrictive emotionality and alexithymia.

4. discuss the correlates of restrictive emotionality.


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