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Nervous System vs Endocrine System. Endocrine vs Exocrine Glands. Endocrine Glands. Ductless Produce chemical messenger Hormone released into blood stream. Exocrine Glands. Have ducts Produce a variety of substances (sweat, oil, enzymes) Release chemicals through ducts.

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Endocrine glands
Endocrine Glands

  • Ductless

  • Produce chemical messenger

  • Hormone released into blood stream


Exocrine glands
Exocrine Glands

  • Have ducts

  • Produce a variety of substances (sweat, oil, enzymes)

  • Release chemicals through ducts


What makes a hormone a hormone
What makes a hormone a hormone?

  • 1. Secreted by endocrine gland

  • 2. Released into circulatory system

  • 3. Travels to and acts on specific target cells.



Classification of hormones
Classification of Hormones

  • Steroid Hormones – fat soluble, made from cholesterol.

    • Ex. Sex hormones

      Non-Steroidal Hormones

  • Protein Hormones – made from amino acids, usually from tyrosine, smaller than steroid hormones.

  • Peptide Hormones- chains of amino acids

    • Very diverse group



Classification of hormones1
Classification of Hormones hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.

3 major types of hormones:

1. Amino Acid Derivatives

2. Peptide Hormones

3. Lipid Derivatives


Protein hormones
Protein Hormones hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.

  • Much faster action than steroid hormones

  • Do not enter the target cell

  • Ex. Adrenalin


Mechanisms of action how hormones work
Mechanisms of Action (How Hormones Work) hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.

Genes:

Second Messengers:


Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.

  • Location: Diencephalon

  • Structure: Neurons and neuroglia

  • Hormones: Releasing hormones, ADH, oxytocin,

  • Direct action on adrenal medulla


Hypothalamic control of hormone secretion from the adenohypophysis
Hypothalamic Control of Hormone Secretion hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones. from the Adenohypophysis

Hypothalamus regulates secretion of hormones

  • Secretes releasing factors to release hormones

  • Secretes inhibiting hormones to turn off secretion of hormones


Hypothalamus relationship to anterior posterior pituitary
Hypothalamus Relationship to Anterior & Posterior Pituitary hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.


Hypothalamus summary
Hypothalamus Summary hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.


The pituitary gland hypophysis
The Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.

  • Secretes nine major hormones

  • Attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum

  • Two basic divisions of the pituitary gland

    • Anterior pituitary gland

    • Posterior pituitary gland


The pituitary gland
The Pituitary Gland hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.

Figure 25.3a-c


Anterior pituitary gland
Anterior Pituitary Gland hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.

  • Location: Attached to hypothalamus by infundibulum

  • Structure: endocrine-secreting cells

  • Hormones: Tropic Hormones (ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH) and GH, PRL, MSH


Posterior pituitary gland
Posterior Pituitary Gland hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.

  • Location: Attached to hypothalamus by infundibulum

  • Structure: Axons that extend from the hypothalamus

  • Releases (does not make) two hormones

    • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

    • Oxytocin


The thyroid gland
The Thyroid Gland hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.

  • Location: anterior neck

  • Structure: Follicles and areolar connective tissue

  • Hormones: thyroid hormone (TH) and calcitonin


The thyroid gland1
The Thyroid Gland hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.


The parathyroid gland
The Parathyroid Gland hormones, glycoprotein hormones, peptide hormones, and amino acid derivative hormones.

  • Location: Posterior surface of the thyroid gland

  • Structure: endocrine cells

  • Hormones: Parathyroid hormone



The adrenal gland
The Adrenal Gland It acts on bone, kidney, and intestinal cells to increase the release of calcium into the blood.


The adrenal glands
The Adrenal Glands It acts on bone, kidney, and intestinal cells to increase the release of calcium into the blood.

  • Location: Superior surface of the kidneys

  • Structure: Inner adrenal medulla and outer adrenal cortex

  • Nerve supply is almost exclusively sympathetic fibers

  • Hormones in Adrenal Cortex: Glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol, corticosterone, and cortixon), Mineralocorticoids (e.g. aldosterone), and androgens

  • Hormones in Adrenal Medulla: Epinephrine and norepinephrine


The adrenal cortex
The Adrenal Cortex It acts on bone, kidney, and intestinal cells to increase the release of calcium into the blood.

Figure 25.9a



The pancreas
The Pancreas does this by causing water to be reabsorbed from the tubules of the kidney and returned to the blood. This increases the water content of the blood and reduces the volume of urine.

  • Location: Posterior abdominal wall along duodenum

  • Structure: Both endocrine and exocrine cells (secrete digestive enzymes)

  • Hormones: Glucagon and insulin



Glucagon and insulin
Glucagon and Insulin cells produce insulin. Delta cells produce somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide cells produce pancreatic polypeptide.


Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus cells produce insulin. Delta cells produce somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide cells produce pancreatic polypeptide.

  • This is a disease caused by elevated glucose levels

  • 2 Types of diabetes:

    Type I diabetes (10% of cases)

    Type II diabetes (90% of cases)


Type i diabetes 10 of cases
Type I Diabetes (10% of cases) cells produce insulin. Delta cells produce somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide cells produce pancreatic polypeptide.

  • Develops suddenly, usually before age 15

  • Caused by inadequate production of insulin because T cell-mediated autoimmune response destroys beta cells

  • Controlled by insulin injections


Type ii diabetes 90 of cases
Type II diabetes (90% of cases) cells produce insulin. Delta cells produce somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide cells produce pancreatic polypeptide.

  • Usually occurs after age 40 and in obese individuals

  • Insulin levels are normal or elevated but there is either a decrease in number of insulin receptors or the cells cannot take it up.

  • Controlled by dietary changes and regular exercise


Pituitary disorders
Pituitary Disorders cells produce insulin. Delta cells produce somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide cells produce pancreatic polypeptide.

  • Gigantism – hypersecretion of GH in children

  • Pituitary dwarfism – hyposecretion of GH

  • Diabetes insipidus – pars nervosa does not make enough ADH


Disorders of the thyroid gland
Disorders of the Thyroid Gland cells produce insulin. Delta cells produce somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide cells produce pancreatic polypeptide.

  • Grave’s disease – most common type of hyperthyroidism

    • Immune system makes abnormal antibodies

      • Stimulates the oversecretion of TH by follicle cells

    • Leads to nervousness, weight loss, sweating, and rapid heart rate


Disorders of the thyroid gland1
Disorders of the Thyroid Gland cells produce insulin. Delta cells produce somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide cells produce pancreatic polypeptide.

  • Myxedema – adult hypothyroidism

    • Antibodies attack and destroy thyroid tissue

    • Low metabolic rate and weight gain are common symptoms

  • Endemic goiter – due to lack of iodine in the diet

  • Cretinism – hypothyroidism in children

    • Short, disproportionate body, thick tongue and mental retardation


Disorders of the adrenal cortex
Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex cells produce insulin. Delta cells produce somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide cells produce pancreatic polypeptide.

  • Cushing’s syndrome – caused by hypersecretion of glucocorticoid hormones

  • Addison’s disease – hyposecretory disorder of the adrenal cortex

    • Deficiencies of both mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids


Control of hormones release three mechanisms
Control of Hormones Release: cells produce insulin. Delta cells produce somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide cells produce pancreatic polypeptide. Three Mechanisms

Figure 25.2a-c


  • Oxytocin has two positive feedback mechanisms associated with it. The first is the release of milk. The mechanical and psychological stimulation of the baby's suckling triggers the release of oxytocin. This provides more milk, which allows the baby to continue to suckle, which in turn stimulates the release of more oxytocin. The other feedback mechanism is the stimulation of uterine contractions. Once uterine contractions begin, they push down on receptors in the pelvis, which triggers the release of more oxytocin, which causes more uterine contractions.


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