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Human Embryology Week 1: Fertilization to Implantation Week 2: The Bilaminar Embryo Week 3: The Trilaminar Embryo Neurulation and Neural Crest Musculoskeletal System Head & Neck (brief introduction) Eye and Ear Development Heart Foregut/Midgut/Hindgut Renal System Reproductive System.

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Brad Martinsen, Ph.D. Department of Pediatrics Pediatric Cardiology

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Brad martinsen ph d department of pediatrics pediatric cardiology

Human Embryology

Week 1: Fertilization to Implantation

Week 2: The Bilaminar Embryo

Week 3: The Trilaminar Embryo

Neurulation and Neural Crest

Musculoskeletal System

Head & Neck (brief introduction)

Eye and Ear Development

Heart

Foregut/Midgut/Hindgut

Renal System

Reproductive System

Brad Martinsen, Ph.D.

Department of Pediatrics

Pediatric Cardiology


Brad martinsen ph d department of pediatrics pediatric cardiology

1.Reading assignments for first exam:Human Embryology, Larsen, 3rd & 2nded.Larson pp1-67 (1-63)Larson pp 80-93, 98-102 (73-87, 92-96)Larson pp 315-335 (311-329)2. Exam #1-->Handouts are a complete review of the reading and what I will say in lecture. Use reading assignments to clarify anything said in lecture or in the handout. Not all detail in the reading assignments will be on the exam.


Fertilization

Fertilization


First days of development day 0 5

First Days of Development Day 0-5

Compaction

starts


First days of development day 6

First Days of Development Day 6


Review question

Review Question.

Which of the following is the

origin of the mitochondrial DNA

of all human Adult Cells?

A) Paternal only

B) Maternal only

C) A combination of paternal and maternal

D) Either paternal or maternal

E) Unknown origin


Review question1

Review Question.

Which of the following is the

origin of the mitochondrial DNA

of all human Adult Cells?

A) Paternal only

B) Maternal only

C) A combination of paternal and maternal

D) Either paternal or maternal

E) Unknown origin


First days of development day 7

First Days of Development Day 7


Week two days 8

Week TwoDays 8


Day 9

Day 9


Day 10

Day 10


Day 11

Day 11


Day 12

Day 12


Days 12 13

Days 12-13

Chorion membrane

consists of?


Days 13

Days 13


Day 14 15

Day 14-15

Primary ectoderm:

primordial germ cells,

endothelial cells, and

hematopoietic stem cells.

Extraembryonic mesoderm

of the yolk sac wall is a

major site of hematopoiesis.

Chorion membrane

consists of?


Brad martinsen ph d department of pediatrics pediatric cardiology

Origin of the germ lineA. Migration of the primordial germ cells.B. Migration into posterior body wall.

2 Weeks

->ovarian follicle cells

10th

Thoracic

Vertebrae

4-6 weeks

->Sertoli cells

Teratoma:


Clinical application human chorionic gonadotropin hcg

Clinical ApplicationHuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

  • hCG is a 57,000 MW glycoprotein with two subunits

  • (alpha and beta) produced by the syncytiotrophoblast.

  • Enters the maternal blood circulation.

  • Prevents degeneration of the corpus luteum.

  • Stimulates production of progesterone in the corpus luteum

  • and chorion, which sustains the placenta.

  • Can be assayed in maternal blood at day 8 after fertilization

  • And in maternal urine at day 10. This is the basis of early diagnosis of pregnancy.


Clinical application complete hydatidiform mole

Clinical ApplicationComplete hydatidiform mole

Persistent trophoblastic disease

Metastatic choriocarcinoma


Iv clinical applications f genomic imprinting

IV. Clinical Applications.F. Genomic Imprinting.

1. Cytogenetic analysis of hydatidiform moles suggests

Paternal genetic complement->placental development.

Maternal genetic complement->embryo development.

2. Methylation of DNA is a mechanism that leads to independent

expression of maternal and paternal genomes during

early development. Female germ line highly methylated.

3. Example of pattern of inheritance:

Father->Prader-Willi Syndrome

Mother->Angelman Syndrome

4. Severity and age of onset of several genetic diseases also differ

on inheritance pattern.


Week three i gastrulation and somite nt development a primitive streak

Week Three.I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development.A. Primitive Streak.


I gastrulation and somite nt development b process of gastrulation

I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development.B. Process of Gastrulation.


I gastrulation and somite nt development b process of gastrulation1

I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development.B. Process of Gastrulation.


I gastrulation and somite nt development b process of gastrulation2

I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development.B. Process of Gastrulation.


I gastrulation and somite nt development b process of gastrulation3

I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development.B. Process of Gastrulation.


I gastrulation and somite nt development c paraxial intermediate and lateral plate mesoderm

I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development.C. Paraxial, intermediate, and lateral plate mesoderm.

Axial skel.

Vol muscl.

Dermis

Splanchnopleuric

Somatopleuric

mesoderm

Urinary system

Genital system


I gastrulation and somite nt development c paraxial intermediate and lateral plate mesoderm1

I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development.C. Paraxial, intermediate, and lateral plate mesoderm.


I gastrulation and somite nt development d induction of the neural plate

I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development.D. Induction of the neural plate.


I gastrulation and somite nt development d induction of the neural plate1

I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development.D. Induction of the neural plate.

Id2 gene

expression


I gastrulation and somite nt development d induction of the neural plate2

I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development.D. Induction of the neural plate.


I gastrulation and somite nt development d induction of the neural plate3

I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development.D. Induction of the neural plate.

Cranial

Vagal

Trunk

Lumbosacral


I gastrulation and somite nt development e clinical applications

I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development. E. Clinical Applications.

-->Neural crest cells that give rise to Odontoblasts stop

migrating and settle down against the buccal epithelium

at locations of the future teeth.

--> Teeth are composite structures made up of the

outer white enamal which covers the teeth above the gums

and the inner dentin, a different mineralized tissue forming

the root and interior of the teeth.

--> Dentin and enamel are extracellular products of two

different types of cells, the ameloblasts (enamel) and

odontoblasts (dentin).


I gastrulation and somite nt development e clinical applications1

I. Gastrulation and somite/Nt development.E. Clinical Applications.

Rieger Syndrome:

-->Embryological disturbance of the neural crest ectoderm

results in severe enamel hypoplasia, conical and misshapen

teeth, hypodontia, hyperdonita, and impactions. Abnormalities

of migration along the buccal epithelium results in ectopism.


Gastrulation and somite nt development paraxial intermediate and lateral plate mesoderm

Gastrulation and somite/Nt developmentParaxial, intermediate, and lateral plate mesoderm

Axial skel.

Vol muscl.

Dermis

Splanchnopleuric

Somatopleuric

mesoderm

Urinary system

Genital system


Brad martinsen ph d department of pediatrics pediatric cardiology

Form ~44 pairs of somites then caudal most 7 somites disapear giving rise to 37 pairs.

1-4 somites: occipital part of the skull, bones of nose and eyes, & muscles of the tongue.

Next 8 pairs: form in the presumptive cervical region. Give rise to occipital bone and cervical vertebrae, and assoc. muscles.

Next 12 pairs: Thoracic somites-->

thoracic vertebrae, and associated muscles.

5 lumbar somites, 5 sacral somites,

&

Finally 3 coccygeal somites.


Musculoskeletal system role of somites somites subdivide into three kinds of mesodermal primordium

Musculoskeletal SystemRole of somites…Somites subdivide into three kinds of mesodermal primordium.

Dermatome

Myotome

Day 22

Day 28

Day 31


Vertebral column

Vertebral Column

5-7 weeks

Adult >25yrs


Vertebral column intersegmental position of the vertebrae

Vertebral ColumnIntersegmental position of the vertebrae

Day 31

How do the spinal nerves escape from the developing vertebral canal?

Why do 8 cervical sclerotomes produce 7 cervical vertebrae?


Vertebral column1

Vertebral Column

Intervertebral disk: Consists of the:

nucleus pulposus (remnant of the notochord) and

annulus fibrosus (outer rim of fibro-cartilage, derived from mesoderm/sclerotome).


Skeletal muscle trunk musculature

Back Muscles

Skeletal MuscleTrunk musculature

Intercostal &

Abdominal muscles


Limb skeleton and musculature development

Limb Skeleton and Musculature development

Somites induce somatopleuric plate to form the limb buds.

Day 24: the upper limb bud appears in the

lower cervical region.

Day 28: the lower limb bud appears in the

lower lumbar region.

AER


Somite lateral plate mesoderm and neural crest contribution to the limb

Somite, lateral plate mesoderm, and neural crest contribution to the limb

N.C. forms the

Melanocytes & Schwann

Cells.

Bone, tendons, ligaments

Somites->musculature of the limb


Limb musculature development

Cervical and thoracic somite cells invade the

upper limb bud to form the limb musclulature.

Lumbar somite cells invade the lower limb

buds to form the leg musculature.

Dorsal (Posterior) Muscle Mass:

Upper limb-->extensors and supinators

Lower limb-->extensors and abductors

Ventral (Anterior) Muscle Mass:

Upper limb-->flexors and pronators

Lower limb-->flexors and adductors

Limb Musculature development


Rotation of the limbs

Note that the upper limbs rotate laterally 90 degrees, whereas the

lower limbs rotate medially 90 degrees, which sets up the following

anatomic situations:

Flexor compartment of the upper limb is anterior, whereas the

flexor compartment of lower limb is posterior.

Extensor compartment of upper limb is posterior, whereas the

extensor compartment of lower limb is anterior.

Rotation of the limbs


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