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Orgainic/inorganic pg. 14 sg. Some cpds which contain carbon are inorganic. Examples include carbon dioxide, carbonates, and hydrogen carbonates. All cpds which contain no carbon are inorganic Three types of organic cpds are found in living things, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids.

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Orgainic/inorganic pg. 14 sg

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Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg
Orgainic/inorganic pg. 14 sg

  • Some cpds which contain carbon are inorganic.

    Examples include carbon dioxide, carbonates, and hydrogen carbonates.

    All cpds which contain no carbon are inorganic

    Three types of organic cpds are found in living things, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids



Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg

  • Carbon atoms can share electrons -notable being other carbon atoms, hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms.

  • The simplest organic molecules are defined as being comprised of only carbon and hydrogen = hydrocarbons


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg

  • Hydrocarbons are non-polar, hydrophobic compounds. (water hating)

  • Compounds that have no charges on them will not mix with polar water.


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg

  • Hydrophilic comes from the Latin roots "hydro" (water) and "philia" (love).

  • Compounds are polar, and so dissolve easily in the polar solvent water.



Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons

  • A simple chain of carbons with its full complement of hydrogens is said to be saturated.

  • known as alkanes.

  • name ends with 'ane'.


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg


Branching chains
Branching chains

  • Sometimes two hydrocarbon molecules can have the same numbers of the same atoms but have different arrangements of these atoms. We say they are isomers.


Role of hydrocarbons in fats
Role of hydrocarbons in fats

  • A fat molecule consists of a small, non hydrocarbon component joined to three hydrocarbon tails. The tails can be broken down to provide energy. Mammalian adipose cells stockpile fat.


Functional groups parts of the molecules of life
Functional Groups Parts of the molecules of life.

  • Part of your homework tonight is to go to this web site: Building Biomolecules: The Functional Groups

  • Review each of the functional groups and do the self quiz.




Phosphate groups
Phosphate groups

  • In biology this is an important group found in ATP.


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg


Exergonic endergonic reactions
Exergonic / Endergonic Reactions

  • Energy releasing processes, ones that "generate" energy, are termed exergonic reactions.

  • Reactions that require energy to initiate the reaction are known as endergonic reactions



Macromolecules page 15sg
Macromolecules – page 15sg

  • Monomers make polymers. Polymers are long molecules consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds.


Condensation reaction
Condensation Reaction

  • Monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule, also known as condensation reaction (also called dehydration synthesis .

  • Dehydration Synthesis-Hydrolysis


Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis

  • Means - to break with water. Bonds between monomers are broken by the addition of water molecules, a hydrogen from the water attaching to one monomer and a hydroxyl group attaching to the adjacent monomer. This occurs in the digestive tract. Dehydration Synthesis-Hydrolysis

  • Biology I Interactive Animations (go to biochemistry section)


Carbohydrates fuel and building molecules pg 15 sg
Carbohydrates – fuel and building molecules pg 15 sg

  • Carbohydrates have the general molecular formula CH2O

  • The simplest CHO are monosaccarides.

  • Disaccharides are double sugars (formed by dehydration synthesis)

  • Polysaccharides are made of many sugars


Monosaccharides
Monosaccharides

  • Glucose is the most common monosaccharide and is vital to life

  • Three common sugars share the same molecular formula: C6H12O6. Because of their six carbon atoms, each is a hexose.


Name 2 monosaccharides p 15 sg
Name 2 monosaccharides p 15 sg

  • Glucose

  • Fructose

  • Galactose

  • Ribose


Glucose has the trademarks of a sugar pg 14 sg
Glucose has the trademarks of a sugar pg 14 sg

  • A hydroxyl group is attached to each carbon except one, here you find a double bond to oxygen

  • Used as major nrg source for cells

  • (2.2.8)


Glucose comes in different shapes
Glucose comes in different shapes

  • Linear and ring forms


Draw the ring structures of glucose and ribose pg 14 sg
Draw the ring structures of glucose and ribose pg 14 sg

  • Ribose ( 5 carbons)

  • Glucose (6 carbons)


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg


Disaccharide
Disaccharide

  • Consists of two monosaccharides joined together by a glycosidic linkage, a covalent bond formed during dehydration reactions Dehydration Synthesis-Hydrolysis (go to carbohydrate synthesis)



Storage polysaccharides
Storage Polysaccharides

  • Starch is a common PolySac of plants. Consisting of glucose molecules


Glycogen another storage molecule
Glycogen another storage molecule

  • Stored mainly in liver and muscle, hydrolysis of glycogen releases glucose


Storage of starch in plants
Storage of starch in plants

  • Plants store starch as granules within cellular structures called plastids inside the chloroplasts


Another structural poly sac is cellulose sg 15
Another structural poly sac is cellulose sg 15

  • Found in plant cell walls- structural support


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg


Yet another structural poly sac
Yet another structural poly sac cellulose is indigestible to humans .

  • Chitin: used by arthropods (insects, spiders, crustaceans to form exoskeleton, also found in cell wall of fungi)


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg


Lipids diverse hydrophobic molecules pg 15 sg
Lipids- Diverse hydrophobic molecules pg 15 sg cellulose is indigestible to humans .

  • Fat molecules are made up of four parts:

  • a molecule of glycerol (on the right) and

  • three molecules of fatty acids.


Structure of fatty acid
Structure of Fatty Acid cellulose is indigestible to humans .

  • Has a long carbon chain, at one end is a carboxyl group. Attached to this is a long hydrocarbon tail. The non polar C-H bond in the tails make them hydrophobic


The glycerol and fatty acid join
The glycerol and fatty acid join cellulose is indigestible to humans .

  • One molecule of water is removed for each fatty acid joined to the glycerol.

  • This results in a ester linkage.


Saturated fatty acid
Saturated Fatty Acid cellulose is indigestible to humans .

  • Contain the maximum possible amount of hydrogens, thus saturated fats. The hydrocarbon chains in these fatty acids are, fairly straight and can pack closely together, making these fats solid at room temperature.


Unsaturated fatty acid
Unsaturated Fatty Acid cellulose is indigestible to humans .

  • some of the carbons share double bonds, they’re not bonded to as many hydrogens as they could if they weren’t double. Therefore these oils are called unsaturated fats. They remain liquid


Look at the difference
Look at the difference cellulose is indigestible to humans .


Function of fats pag 15 sg
Function of fats pag 15 sg cellulose is indigestible to humans .

  • energy storage molecules Fats possess more energy per molecule and less hydration compared with carbohydrates, resulting in fats possessing much more energy stored per unit mass or volume fats have 9cal/gram CHO and proteins have 4 cal/gram

  • Stored as fats in animals and oils in plants

  • In animals such as ourselves, fats are stored in adipose cells

  • Buoyancy – lipids are less dense than water allowing animals to float


Phospholipids
Phospholipids cellulose is indigestible to humans .

  • Major component of cell membranes

  • Structure: Phospholipids are made from glycerol, two fatty acids, and (in place of the third fatty acid) a phosphate group

  • The hydrocarbon tails of the fatty acids are hydrophobic

  • the phosphate group end of the molecule is hydrophilic because of the oxygens with all of their pairs of unshared electrons.

  • This means that phospholipids are soluble in both water and oil.


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg


Structure of phospholipids
Structure of phospholipids cellulose is indigestible to humans .


Function of phospholipids
Function of Phospholipids cellulose is indigestible to humans .

  • Found in cell membranes. Act as barrier .

  • When phospholipids are added to water they self assemble, with hydrophobic parts inward and hydrophilic parts outward.

  • http://telstar.ote.cmu.edu/Hughes/tutorial/cellmembranes/orient2.swf


Another group of lipids are steroids
Another group of lipids are Steroids cellulose is indigestible to humans .

  • A lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings. One common steroid is cholesterol.

  • Many hormones are steroids, including sex hormones


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg


Proteins
Proteins cellulose is indigestible to humans .

  • Proteins are a major constituent of most cells (>50% dry weight)

  • All proteins consist of polymers that are folded into specific conformations

  • This conformation plus the chemistry of well-placed functional groups control a protein's function (another example of function follows form)

  • Proteins are made up of 20 different types of amino-acid monomers


Polymers of amino acids are called peptides pg 14 sg
Polymers of amino acids are called peptides pg 14 sg cellulose is indigestible to humans .

  • Remember the structure of an amino acid. Carboxyl and amino group. A protein consists of polymers of amino acids, folded and coiled into a specific configuration.


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg


Coming together to make a peptide bond
Coming together to make a peptide bond. hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • amino acid basics

  • Animation of Peptide Bond Formation

  • Animation - Amino acid condensation

  • The carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group of the other, an enzyme can join the amino acids by dehydration reaction.


Several function of proteins pg 68 sg
Several function of proteins. hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic. Pg 68 sg

  • Structural proteins act as support. Examples include the silk fibers of spiders and insects, collagen in animal connective tissue, and keratin found in hair, horns, feathers.


Storage proteins
Storage proteins hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • Storage of amino acids. Examples are egg whites, casein, found in milk, and plants have storage proteins in their seeds.


Transport proteins
Transport proteins hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • Transport of other substances, Hemoglobin is an example, transporting oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. McGraw-Hill Online Learning Center Test<BLURT>


Hormonal proteins
Hormonal Proteins hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • They perform by coordinating of an organism's activities. An example is insulin.


Movement proteins
Movement Proteins hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • Used for movement. Examples are actin and myosin found in muscle tissue.


Defensive proteins
Defensive Proteins hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • Protection from disease. Antibodies are an exampe.


Enzymatic proteins
Enzymatic Proteins hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • Selective acceleration of chemical reactions. We will be discussing enzymes in detail later.


A proteins function depends on its conformation
A proteins function depends on its conformation. hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • A polypeptide is not the same as a protein.

  • The chain of amino acids known as a polypeptide must be twisted and folded.

  • Most proteins are globular (roughly spherical) others are fibrous in shape.


Shape is everything
Shape is everything hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • In order for a protein to function properly it must be able to be recognized and fit properly to another molecule. (This is important to remember when we speak of enzymes)


Polar and non polar amino acids aa pg 68 sg
Polar and non polar amino acids (aa) pg 68 sg hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • Polar aa have hydrophilic R groups

  • Found on surface of proteins make them water soluble

  • Make channels for hydrophilic substances

  • Positive charged R groups allow – ions through

  • Positive charged R groups allow – ions through

  • Integral or transmembrane proteins


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg


Non polar aa pg 68
Non polar aa/pg 68 hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • In center of water soluble proteins stabilize structure

  • Remain embedded

  • Peripheral proteins


A proteins function depends on its conformation pg 66 sg
A proteins function depends on its conformation. Pg 66 sg hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • A polypeptide is not the same as a protein.

  • The chain of amino acids known as a polypeptide must be twisted and folded.

  • Most proteins are globular (roughly spherical) others are fibrous in shape.


2 types you need to know pg 66sg
2 types you need to know pg. 66sg hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic.

  • Globular - clumped into a shape of a ball. Major examples include insulin, hemoglobin, and most enzymes.

  • http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/proteins/images/u4fg1b3.jpg


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg

  • Fibrous hydrophobic or hydrophilic, acidic or basic. proteins Keratins - in wool, hair skin, fur, claws, nails, hooves, horns, scales, beaks, feathers, actin and mysin in muscle tissues and fibrinogen needed for blood clots.

  • tropomycin


Four levels of protein structure all driven by chemical bonds 67 sg
Four levels of protein structure all driven by chemical bonds/67 sg

  • Primary structure: determined by base structure of the gene that codes fro the polypeptide.

  • A chain of amino acids


Secondary structure p 66 67
Secondary Structure p 66+67 bonds/67 sg

  • Regular repeating structure including beta sheets, and alpha helices stabilized by hydrogen bonds between groups in the main chain of the polypeptide.


Two types of secondary structure
Two types of secondary structure bonds/67 sg

  • Alpha - Helix: the first structure. It has a rod shape. The peptide is coiled around an imaginary cylinder and stabilized by hydrogen bonds formed between components of the peptide bonds


The second type
The second type bonds/67 sg

  • Beta - pleated sheets: the amino acids adopt the conformation of a sheet of paper and the structure is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between amino acids in different polypeptide strands.


Lyzozyme
Lyzozyme bonds/67 sg


Tertiary structure pg 67
Tertiary structure pg 67 bonds/67 sg

  • The three dimensional conformation of a polypeptide.

  • Stabilized by intramolecular bonds that form between aa in the

  • Bonds form, ionic, hydrogen, hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bridges.


Quaternary structure
Quaternary Structure bonds/67 sg

  • Linking together of 2 or more polypeptides to form a single protein


Hemoglobin pg 67
Hemoglobin pg 67 bonds/67 sg

  • Prosthetic groups – a non polypeptide structure contained in a protein

  • Heme group linked to each of the four polypeptides in hemoglobin.

  • Proteins with a prosthetic group are called conjugated proteins


Protein folding
Protein folding bonds/67 sg

  • Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry - Interactive Animations

  • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/proteins/protein structure.swf

  • Proteins Structure Animation


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg


Nucleic acids are informational proteins
Nucleic acids are informational proteins bonds/67 sg

  • First type of nucleic acid is deoxyribonucleic acid of DNA. The second type is ribonucleic acid or RNA.


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg


Nucleic acids are made of the monomer called nucleotides
Nucleic acids are made of the monomer called nucleotides bonds/67 sg

  • Nucleotides are made of three parts.

  • 1. nitrogenous base

  • 2. pentose ( a five carbon sugar)

  • 3. a phosphate group



The nitrogenous bases are 5 in type
The Nitrogenous bases are 5 in type bonds/67 sg

  • 1. Cytosine (C)

  • 2. Thymine (T) found in DNA only

  • 3. Uracil (U) found only in RNA

  • 4. Adenine (A)

  • 5. Guanine (G)


There are two families of nitrogenous bases
There are two families of nitrogenous bases bonds/67 sg

  • The pyrimidines:

  • Has a six- membered ring or carbon and nitrogen .

  • These include cytosine, thymine, and uricil


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg

  • And Purines: bonds/67 sg

  • Larger, with the six membered ring fused to a five membered ring.

  • Includes: Adenine and guanine



Building a polynucleotide
Building a Polynucleotide bonds/67 sg

  • Polynucleotides are joined by covalent bonds between the phosphate sugar Forms phosphodiester bond

  • This results in the backbone of DNA and RNA


Looks like this
Looks like this bonds/67 sg


Dna you must be able to draw this pg 60 sg
DNA- you must be able to draw this bonds/67 sgpg. 60 sg

  • All along the appendages are attached the nitrogenous bases


Orgainic inorganic pg 14 sg


This all fits together
This all fits together bonds/67 sg

  • The central dogma in molecular biology is:

  • DNARNAprotein

  • You must be able to draw DNA and RNA


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