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Fish and Wildlife in America. Renewable resources. usually taken for granted we have developed an attitude that there will always be more Animals fall into this category. Renewable resources. ability to reproduce many species have died out management of wildlife resources is important.

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Fish and Wildlife in America

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Fish and wildlife in america

Fish and Wildlife in America

Renewable resources

Renewable resources

  • usually taken for granted

  • we have developed an attitude that there will always be more

  • Animals fall into this category

Renewable resources1

Renewable resources

  • ability to reproduce

  • many species have died out

  • management of wildlife resources is important



  • living things that are neither human or domesticated

  • especially birds, mammals, fishes

  • includes both plant and animal life



  • we will concentrate on higher life forms

  • vertebrates

  • lower forms of plant and animal life are also important in maintaining a balance

United states

United States

  • estimated that the continental U.S. contains over 2,300 different vertebrate species.

  • Game animals make up only a small portion of this number

Early pioneers

Early Pioneers

  • depended on these birds, mammals and fish to survive

  • meat supplied food

  • skins used for shelter and clothing

  • oil kept firearms usable

Early pioneers1

Early Pioneers

  • oil used to light cabins

  • with out wildlife resources the wilderness would have never been conquered.

World fur trade

World Fur Trade

  • America was well established

  • at the cost of wildlife

  • trappers took the animals faster than they could multiply

  • treated the resources as a crop

Wildlife killed

Wildlife killed

  • many because they appeared hostile

  • bears, wildcats - danger to people

  • many species were killed because they threatened the safety of domestic animals

Wrongly accused

Wrongly accused

  • hawks were thought to kill chickens

  • mass destruction of hawks took place



  • stomach contents found to contain

  • 40% insects, 30% frogs

  • 23% rats and mice, 3.4% small birds

  • 2% aquatic wildlife

Stomach contents

stomach contents

  • .5% game birds

  • .5% rabbits

Red tail hawks

Red Tail hawks

  • poultry parts were discovered but those parts were only a small percentage of the diet

  • original premise was unfounded.

Rare or endangered

Rare or Endangered

  • few in number

  • 1966 Endangered Species Preservation Act

  • 1969 - Endangered Species Conservation Act

Congressional acts

Congressional Acts

  • protect fish and wildlife on a worldwide basis

  • protection and conservation of species of native fish known to be threatened with extinction

1969 amendment

1969 amendment

  • dealt with importation of endangered species into the US from anywhere in the world

  • called for formation of an endangered species list

1969 amendment1

1969 amendment

  • list is updated every 5 years

  • 1970 the list contained 133 species of mammals

  • 124 birds, 24 reptiles

  • 25 fish, 1 mollusk

Extinct species

Extinct species

  • no longer exist

  • outside of museums or photographs

Rare species

Rare species

  • one that is no longer common

  • in in danger of becoming extinct

  • zoos may hold the last examples of the species

Extinct species1

Extinct Species

  • Passenger Pigeon

  • at one time the population was thought to be in the billions

  • flew in enormous flocks

  • John Audubon estimated on flock he saw at over one billion

Passenger pigeon

Passenger Pigeon

  • large flocks would strip all the foliage

  • leaving the area bare

  • people declared war on the birds

  • killing all they could find

Passenger pigeon1

Passenger Pigeon

  • captured the young and killed them, shipped them to cities as food

  • flocks soon disappeared

  • NY, PA and MA passed laws to protect them

Passenger pigeon2

Passenger Pigeon

  • laws were too late

  • birds held in captivity would not breed

  • last known passenger pigeon died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914

Passenger pigeon3

Passenger Pigeon

  • body of last passenger pigeon is on display at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, DC

Extinct species2

Extinct Species

  • Carolina Parakeet

  • Heath Hen

  • Labrador Duck

Carolina parakeet

Carolina Parakeet

  • sought for their colorful feathers which were used in women’s hats

  • final extinction came in 1914

Heath hen

Heath Hen

  • relative of the prairie chicken

  • used for food by early settlers

  • bird sanctuary set up in the early 1900’s

Heath hen1

Heath Hen

  • Fire swept through the sanctuary

  • a few males survived

  • last bird died in 1932

Labrador duck

Labrador Duck

  • became extinct before anyone realized it was gone

  • most birds were killed for their feathers which were used to stuff pillows

Endangered mammals

Endangered Mammals

  • 133 on the endangered list distributed by the US Dept. of the Interior

Common endangered

Common endangered

  • big horn sheep, polar bears,

  • key deer, wolves

  • mountain lions

  • most hunted extensively without considering extinction

Big horn sheep

Big Horn Sheep

  • threatened by extinction from two sides

  • humans and disease

  • large sheep, relatives of domestic sheep

Big horn sheep1

Big Horn Sheep

  • live high in the mountains

  • above the tree line

  • 6-7 feet in length

  • have long curved horns

Big horn sheep2

Big Horn Sheep

  • are hunted for trophies

  • many carcasses are found with head removed

  • very alert

  • are under protection of game laws

  • some are being kept in wildlife reserves

Polar bears

Polar Bears

  • important source of food for Eskimos

  • fur is used for clothing

  • meat is used for food

  • airplane hunting is being used to kill vast amounts each year

Polar bears1

Polar Bears

  • Females produce only 2 young each year

  • stay with mother for 10 months

  • Canada and Soviet Union have laws to protect these animals

Key deer

Key Deer

  • smallest white tail deer

  • killed for trophies

  • strict laws prohibiting hunting

  • population increased from 30 to 300 because of wildlife refuges



  • wolves resemble dogs

  • hunt in packs at night

  • pack consists of young and old

  • female bears 5-14 pups in a den guarded by the male

  • male and female mate for life



  • feed on domestic livestock

  • there have been bounties on wolves

  • now bounties can only exist if the population endanger the deer population

Mountain lions

Mountain Lions

  • has been eliminated in eastern US

  • hunt at night

  • feed mainly on deer

  • humans hunt frequently

  • are hunted for skins and heads.

  • Hunting is not allowed in national parks, but are hunted in forest areas

Endangered birds

Endangered Birds

  • there are 124 birds on the endangered species list.

  • The most common are the whooping crane, bald eagle, ivory-billed woodpecker, and prairie chicken.

Whooping crane

Whooping Crane

  • migrate from Texas to Canada each year

  • many are hunted during migration

  • nest up to two young per year

  • the young fly south with adults

Whooping crane1

Whooping Crane

  • when birds return to Arkansas Wildlife Refuge each year they are counted.

  • The count has steadily increased

  • at the present time there are only 51 whooping cranes

Bald eagles

Bald Eagles

  • Has a white head and tail

  • bald eagles feed on dead salmon

  • bounties have been places for their talons

  • are now protected by law

Bald eagles1

Bald Eagles

  • $500 fine for tampering with an eagle or its nest

  • the number to bald eagles continues to drop

  • take young 4 years to mature

  • can live up to 100 years

Ivory billed woodpecker

Ivory-billed Woodpecker

  • largest woodpecker in North America

  • lives in southern states

  • nests in tops of old forests

  • eat insects and grubs found in old and dying trees

Ivory billed woodpecker1

Ivory-billed Woodpecker

  • are being held in secret reserves and one day they will be reintroduced to the public

Prairie chickens

Prairie Chickens

  • is a type of grouse

  • Indian dances imitated their mating dances

  • oil drilling and drought dwindled the population

  • in 1959 the Prairie Chicken Foundation was formed to protect them

Endangered fish

Endangered Fish

  • there are 25 fish on endangered species list

  • 2 species are located in Mammoth Caves and Death Valley (pupfish and blind fish)

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