Nm3413 audience analysis
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3. NM3413 Audience Analysis. CULTURE AS CONTEXT FOR COMMUNICATION. OVERVIEW. Globalization Definition of culture Elements of culture Western and Eastern perspectives of communication High context vs Low context culture. NM3413 A UDIENCE A NALYSIS CULTURE. Globalization.

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NM3413 Audience Analysis

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Nm3413 audience analysis

3

NM3413 Audience Analysis

CULTURE AS CONTEXT FOR COMMUNICATION


Nm3413 audience analysis

OVERVIEW

  • Globalization

  • Definition of culture

  • Elements of culture

  • Western and Eastern perspectives of communication

  • High context vs Low context culture


Globalization

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Globalization

What the World Thinks

SOURCE: Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, “What the World Thinks in 2002,” posted on the Pew Website: http://www.people-press.org.


Culture definition

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Culture definition

Nineteenth Century

In the 19th century, the term culture was commonly used as a synonym for Western civilization.

Sir Edward B. Tylor (1871) popularized the idea that all societies pass through developmental stages, beginning with “savagery,” progressing to “barbarism,” and culminating in Western “civilization.”


Culture definition1

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Culture definition

Today’s definition

  • A community or population sufficiently large enough to be self-sustaining, that is, large enough to produce new generations of members without relying on outside people.

  • The totality of that group’s thought, experiences, and patterns of behavior and its concepts, values, and assumptions about life that guide behavior and how those evolve with contact with other cultures.

  • The process of social transmission of thoughts and behaviors from birth in the family and schools over the course of generations.

  • Members who consciously identify themselves with that group.


Elements of culture

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Elements of culture

Hofstede (1994)

  • Symbols

  • Rituals

  • Values

  • Heroes


Elements of culture1

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Elements of culture

Hofstede (1994)

  • Symbols

  • Rituals

  • Values

  • Heroes

 Verbal and nonverbal language


Elements of culture2

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Elements of culture

Hofstede (1994)

  • Symbols

  • Rituals

  • Values

  • Heroes

 The socially essential collective activities within a culture


Elements of culture3

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Elements of culture

Hofstede (1994)

  • Symbols

  • Rituals

  • Values

  • Heroes

The feelings not open for discussion within a culture about what is good or bad, beautiful or ugly, normal or abnormal, which are present in a majority of the members of a culture


Elements of culture4

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Elements of culture

Hofstede (1994)

  • Symbols

  • Rituals

  • Values

  • Heroes

 The real or imagery people who serve as behavior models within a culture.


Superstitions

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Superstitions


East vs west

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

East VS West

Confucian and Western

perspectives on communication


Western perspectives

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Western perspectives

Noise

CONTEXT

CONTEXT

Source

Encoding

Message

Channel

Decoding

Receiver

Receiver Response

Feedback


Confucian perspectives

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Confucian perspectives

Harmony

Confucius (K’ung-Fu-tzu)

550-478 B.C.E.


Confucian perspectives1

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Confucian perspectives

Five relationships:

  • Ruler and Subjects (the relation of righteousness)

  • Husband and Wife (chaste conduct)

  • Father and Son (love)

  • Elder brother and Younger brother (order)

  • Friend and Friend (faithfulness)


Confucian perspectives2

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Confucian perspectives

“To live in harmony with the universe and with your fellow man through proper behavior.”

Confucianism emphasizes virtue, selflessness, duty, patriotism, hard work, and respect for hierarchy, both familial and societal.

Confucius (K’ung-Fu-tzu)

550-478 B.C.E.


Confucian effects on intercultural communication

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Confucian effects on intercultural communication

June Yum (1988):

  • Particularism

  • Role of intermediaries

  • Reciprocity

  • In-group/out group distinction

  • Overlap of personal and public relationships


Confucian effects on intercultural communication1

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Confucian effects on intercultural communication

June Yum (1988):

  • Particularism

There is no universal pattern of rules governing relationships. There are no rules governing interaction with someone whose status is unknown.


Confucian effects on intercultural communication2

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Confucian effects on intercultural communication

June Yum (1988):

2. Role ofintermediaries

Rituals should be followed in establishing relationships.


Confucian effects on intercultural communication3

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Confucian effects on intercultural communication

June Yum (1988):

3. Reciprocity

Complementary obligations are the base of relationship. Gratitude and indebtedness are important parts of Chinese culture.


Confucian effects on intercultural communication4

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Confucian effects on intercultural communication

June Yum (1988):

4. In-group/out-group distinction

In-group members engage in freer and deeper talk and may find it difficult to develop personal relationships with out-group members (Gao & Ting-Toomey, 1998). There can even be different language codes for in-group members.


Confucian effects on intercultural communication5

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Confucian effects on intercultural communication

June Yum (1988):

5. Overlap of personal and public relationships

Business and pleasure are mixed. Frequent contacts lead to common experiences. This contrasts with Western patterns of keeping public and private lives separate.


Low context

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

LOW CONTEXT

HIGH CONTEXT

vs

culture


High versus low context

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

High versus Low Context

Level of Context, by culture


High versus low context1

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

High versus Low Context

High-context cutures make greater distinction between the insiders and outsiders than low-context cultures do. People raised in high-context systems expect more of others than do the participants in low-context systems. When talking something they have on their minds, a high-context individual will expect his interlocutor to know what’s bothering him, so that he does not have to be specific. The result is that he will talk around and around the point, in effect putting all the pieces in place except the crucial one. Placing it properly – this keystone – is the role of his interlocutor.

- E. T. Hall, Beyond Culture (1976, p. 98)


Nm3413 audience analysis

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

We and They

Father, Mother, and Me,

Sister and Auntie say

All the people like us are We,

And everyone else is They.

And They live over the sea

While we live over the way,

But – would you believe it? – They look upon We

As only a sort of They!

continued


Nm3413 audience analysis

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

(continued)

We eat pork and beef

With cow-horn-handled knives.

They who gobble

Their rice off a leaf

Are horrified out of Their lives;

While They who live up a tree,

Feast on grubs and clay,

(Isn’t it scandalous?) look upon We

As a simple disgusting They!

We eat kitchenyfood.

They drink milk and blood

Under and open thatch.

continued


Nm3413 audience analysis

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

(continue)

We have doctors to fee.

They have wizards to pay.

And (impudent healthen!) They look upon We

As a quite impossible They!

All good people agree,

And all good people say,

All nice people, like us, are We

And everyone else is They:

But if you cross over the sea,

Instead of over the way,

You may end by (think of it!) looking on We

As only a sort of They!

- Rudyard Kipling -


Nm3413 audience analysis

NM3413AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

CULTURE

Reference:

Jandt, Fred E. An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2010.


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