Intervention Strategies for Woodstove Homes. Tony Ward, Ph.D. The University of Montana Center for Environmental Health Sciences June 16, 2011. Mexico City, Mexico. Beijing, China. Los Angeles, California.
Tony Ward, Ph.D.
The University of Montana
Center for Environmental Health Sciences
June 16, 2011
*As of Aug 2010
National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS): Annual, 15 μg/m3; 24-hr, 35 μg/m3.
1) Collect PM2.5 air samples.
2) Analyze the air samples for chemical species.
3) Use an EPA computer model (CMB) to apportion the sources.
11/2/07 – 3/1/08
11/8/07 – 3/1/08
11/2/07 – 3/1/08
11/2/07 – 3/1/08
11/2/08 – 2/24/09
Ward T, Lange T. The impact of wood smoke on ambient PM2.5 in northern Rocky Mountain valley communities. Environ Pollut. 2010 Mar;158(3):723-9.
40-60 g smoke/hr
2-5 g smoke/hr
NAAQS: Annual, 15 μg/m3; 24-hr was 65 μg/m3.
Ward, T.J., Rinehart, L.R., and Lange, T., 2006. The 2003/2004 Libby, Montana PM2.5 source apportionment
research study, Aerosol Science and Technology, 40: 166-177.
Funding provided by Montana DEQ, EPA, and HPBA.
Conduct prospective multi-year study to assess changes in woodsmoke PM2.5 and impact on health of school children following the intervention.
Bergauff, M.A., Ward, T.J., Noonan, C.W., and Palmer C.P. 2009. The effect of a woodstove changeout on ambient levels of PM2.5 and chemical tracers for woodsmoke in Libby, Montana. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 2938-2943.
Ward, T.J., Palmer, C.P., Houck, J.E., Navidi, W.C., Geinitz, S., and Noonan, C.W., 2009. A community woodstove changeout and impact on ambient concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(14), 5345–5350.
Ward, T. J., Palmer, C. P., and Noonan, C. W., 2010, PM2.5 source apportionment following a large woodstove changeout program in Libby, Montana. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 60: 688-693.
What about the impact of a woodstove changeout on indoor levels of PM2.5?
1) Libby, Montana.
2) Nez Perce Woodstove Changeout Program.
10/25/06 @ 14:00
10/26/06 @ 14:00
Avg = 131.8 μg/m3
Sampling focused on 20 homes containing woodstoves.
24-hour PM2.5 sampling
Pre-changeout period (Oct/Nov 2006).
Post-changeout (Dec 2006 – Feb 2007).
The goal of the program was to evaluate the impact of this “intervention” on indoor air quality within the home.
Pre-changeout avg PM2.5: 53.4 μg/m3
Post-changeout avg PM2.5: 15.0 μg/m3
Pre-changeout spike avg: 434 μg/m3
Post-changeout spike avg: 103 μg/m3
Did the stove changeout work over time?
Ward, T.J., Palmer, C., Bergauff, M., Hooper, K., and Noonan, C., 2008. Results of a residential indoor PM2.5 sampling program before and after a woodstove changeout, Indoor Air, 18: 408–415.
Air sampling was conducted in a total of 26 woodstove homes.
Phase 1 = pre stove change, 2006/2007 winter.
Phase 2 = post change, same winter.
Phase 3 = post change, 2nd 2007/2008 winter.
Phase 4 = post change, 3rd 2007/2008 winter.
Phase 5 = post change, 4th 2008/2009 winter.
Pre-changeout avg PM2.5: 63.2 µg/m3
Post-changeout avg PM2.5: 28.9 µg/m3
Pre-changeout avg PM2.5: 43.1 μg/m3
Post-changeout avg PM2.5: 126.0 μg/m3
PM2.5 Mass (µg/m3) Measured in Homes Following Outreach/Education.
Ward, T.J., Boulafentis, J., Simpson, J., Hester, C., Moliga, T., Warden, K., and Noonan, C.W., 2011. Results of the Nez Perce woodstove changeout program, Science of the Total Environment, 409, 664-670.
Group 1 (n=36)
Group 2 (n=36)
Group 3 (n=36)
Winter #1: Baselines Exposure and Health Outcomes Measures
Tx1: EPA-Certified Woodstove
Tx2: Active Air Filter Units In two rooms
Tx3: Inactive Air Filter Units (Placebo)
Winter #2: Post-intervention Exposure
and Health Outcomes Measures
Dr. Curtis Noonan