Ch 37 soil and plant nutrition
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Ch. 37 Soil and Plant Nutrition. 37.1 Soil contains a living, complex ecosystem. Soil particles of various sizes derived from the breakdown of rock are found in soil .

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37 1 soil contains a living complex ecosystem
37.1 Soil contains a living, complex ecosystem

  • Soil particles of various sizes derived from the breakdown of rock are found in soil.

  • Soil particle size affects the availability of water, oxygen, and minerals from the soil. A soil’s composition refers to its inorganic and organic components.


  • Topsoil is a complex ecosystem teeming with bacteria, fungi, protists, animals, and the roots of plants.



37 2 plants require essential elements to complete their life cycle
37.2 Plants require essential elements to complete their life cycle

  • Macronutrients, elements required in relatively large amounts, include carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and other major ingredients of organic compounds.


Micronutrients life cycle, elements required in very small amounts, typically have catalytic functions as cofactors of enzymes.




37 3 plant nutrition often involves relationships with other organisms
37.3 Plant nutrition often involves relationships with other organisms

  • Rhizobacteria derive their energy from the rhizosphere, a microbe-enriched ecosystem intimately associated with roots.

  • Plant secretions support the energy needs of the rhizosphere


  • Some organismsrhizobacteria produce antibiotics, whereas others make nutrients more available for plants. Most are free-living, but some live inside plants.

  • Plants satisfy most of their huge needs for nitrogen from the bacterial development of humus and the fixation of gaseous nitrogen.





  • Mycorrhizae plant with fixed nitrogen. In agriculture, legume crops are rotated with other crops to ensure nitrogen in the soil. are mutualistic associations of fungi and roots. The fungal hyphae of mycorrhizae absorb water and minerals, which they supply to their plant hosts.


  • Epiphytes plant with fixed nitrogen. In agriculture, legume crops are rotated with other crops to ensure nitrogen in the soil. grow on the surfaces of other plants but acquire water and minerals from rain. Parasitic plants absorb nutrients from host plants. Carnivorous plants supplement their mineral nutrition by digesting animals.


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