25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention
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25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention







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25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention . Ronald V. Clarke Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey Problem-Oriented Policing Conference Charlotte, October 28-30, 2004. This presentation. Explain Situational Prevention (SCP) Compare POP and SCP Development of 25 techniques
25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention

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Slide 1

25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention

Ronald V. Clarke

Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

Problem-Oriented Policing Conference

Charlotte, October 28-30, 2004

Slide 2

This presentation

  • Explain Situational Prevention (SCP)

  • Compare POP and SCP

  • Development of 25 techniques

  • Show 25 techniques on Popcenter website

Slide 3

Crime Prevention

Intervening in the causal chain to prevent crime occurring

Slide 4

Two ways to prevent crime

Change people’s criminal motivations

Reduce opportunities for crime

Slide 5

Situational crime prevention (SCP)

Art and science of reducing opportunities for crime

Based on new crime theories:

Rational choice

Routine activity

Crime pattern

Slide 6

Focus of New Crime Theories

  • Crime not criminality

  • Events not dispositions

  • Near not distant causes

  • How? not Why?

  • Situational and opportunity factors

Slide 7

POP and SCPSIMILARITIES

  • Both preventive approaches

  • Originated about same time (U.K./U.S.A.)

  • Both focus on highly specific problems

  • Both use action research model

Slide 8

POP

Scanning

Analysis

Response

Assessment

SCP

Data collection

Analysis of problem

Choice of solution

Implementation

Evaluation

Actionresearch

Slide 9

POP vs. SCPDIFFERENCES

Slide 10

POP and SCPCONVERGENCE

  • Scholars intermingling

  • Literatures converging

  • Popcenter website contains much SCP material

  • POP Guides make use of 25 techniques

Slide 11

25 techniques

5 main mechanisms:

  • Increase the Effort

  • Increase the Risks

  • Reduce the Rewards

  • Reduce Provocations

  • Remove Excuses

    5 techniques for each (Handout)

Slide 12

25 techniques (Continued)

Why do we need this classification:

  • Systematize knowledge

  • Stimulus for research

  • Practical guide – have you considered these?

Slide 13

Why 25 techniques?

Grew from 8, 12, 16 to 25:

  • Developments in theory:

    • Originally rational choice /routine activity

    • Neutralization theory (Matza)

    • Social Psychology (Wortley)

  • New preventive ideas

  • New technology

Slide 14

Limitations

Not all techniques equally suitable for all crimes:

  • Remove excuses best for “everyday” crimes

  • Reduce provocations best for closed environments

Slide 15

Limitations (2)

Techniques overlap - Increasing effort can increase risk

Some preventive measures can serve more than one purpose

Bestusedto help thinkingat Response

Slide 17

Clean Cars on NYC Subway (Reduce rewards)

Slide 18

CCTV Installed in 1985 at University parking lots(Increase risks)

CRIMES


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