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25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention . Ronald V. Clarke Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey Problem-Oriented Policing Conference Charlotte, October 28-30, 2004. This presentation. Explain Situational Prevention (SCP) Compare POP and SCP Development of 25 techniques - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention

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25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention

Ronald V. Clarke

Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

Problem-Oriented Policing Conference

Charlotte, October 28-30, 2004


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This presentation

  • Explain Situational Prevention (SCP)

  • Compare POP and SCP

  • Development of 25 techniques

  • Show 25 techniques on Popcenter website


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Crime Prevention

Intervening in the causal chain to prevent crime occurring


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Two ways to prevent crime

Change people’s criminal motivations

Reduce opportunities for crime


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Situational crime prevention (SCP)

Art and science of reducing opportunities for crime

Based on new crime theories:

Rational choice

Routine activity

Crime pattern


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Focus of New Crime Theories

  • Crime not criminality

  • Events not dispositions

  • Near not distant causes

  • How? not Why?

  • Situational and opportunity factors


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POP and SCPSIMILARITIES

  • Both preventive approaches

  • Originated about same time (U.K./U.S.A.)

  • Both focus on highly specific problems

  • Both use action research model


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POP

Scanning

Analysis

Response

Assessment

SCP

Data collection

Analysis of problem

Choice of solution

Implementation

Evaluation

Actionresearch


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POP vs. SCPDIFFERENCES


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POP and SCPCONVERGENCE

  • Scholars intermingling

  • Literatures converging

  • Popcenter website contains much SCP material

  • POP Guides make use of 25 techniques


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25 techniques

5 main mechanisms:

  • Increase the Effort

  • Increase the Risks

  • Reduce the Rewards

  • Reduce Provocations

  • Remove Excuses

    5 techniques for each (Handout)


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25 techniques (Continued)

Why do we need this classification:

  • Systematize knowledge

  • Stimulus for research

  • Practical guide – have you considered these?


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Why 25 techniques?

Grew from 8, 12, 16 to 25:

  • Developments in theory:

    • Originally rational choice /routine activity

    • Neutralization theory (Matza)

    • Social Psychology (Wortley)

  • New preventive ideas

  • New technology


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Limitations

Not all techniques equally suitable for all crimes:

  • Remove excuses best for “everyday” crimes

  • Reduce provocations best for closed environments


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Limitations (2)

Techniques overlap - Increasing effort can increase risk

Some preventive measures can serve more than one purpose

Bestusedto help thinkingat Response


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Clean Cars on NYC Subway (Reduce rewards)


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CCTV Installed in 1985 at University parking lots(Increase risks)

CRIMES