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25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention - Ronald V. ClarkeRutgers, th...

This presentation. Explain Situational Prevention (SCP)Compare POP and SCPDevelopment of 25 techniquesShow 25 techniques on Popcenter website. Crime Prevention. Intervening in the causal chain to prevent crime occurring. Two ways to prevent crime. Change people\'s criminal motivationsReduce opp

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25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention

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25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention

Ronald V. Clarke

Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

Problem-Oriented Policing Conference

Charlotte, October 28-30, 2004

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This presentation

  • Explain Situational Prevention (SCP)

  • Compare POP and SCP

  • Development of 25 techniques

  • Show 25 techniques on Popcenter website

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Crime Prevention

Intervening in the causal chain to prevent crime occurring

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Two ways to prevent crime

Change people’s criminal motivations

Reduce opportunities for crime

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Situational crime prevention (SCP)

Art and science of reducing opportunities for crime

Based on new crime theories:

Rational choice

Routine activity

Crime pattern

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Focus of New Crime Theories

  • Crime not criminality

  • Events not dispositions

  • Near not distant causes

  • How? not Why?

  • Situational and opportunity factors

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  • Both preventive approaches

  • Originated about same time (U.K./U.S.A.)

  • Both focus on highly specific problems

  • Both use action research model

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Data collection

Analysis of problem

Choice of solution




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  • Scholars intermingling

  • Literatures converging

  • Popcenter website contains much SCP material

  • POP Guides make use of 25 techniques

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25 techniques

5 main mechanisms:

  • Increase the Effort

  • Increase the Risks

  • Reduce the Rewards

  • Reduce Provocations

  • Remove Excuses

    5 techniques for each (Handout)

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25 techniques (Continued)

Why do we need this classification:

  • Systematize knowledge

  • Stimulus for research

  • Practical guide – have you considered these?

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Why 25 techniques?

Grew from 8, 12, 16 to 25:

  • Developments in theory:

    • Originally rational choice /routine activity

    • Neutralization theory (Matza)

    • Social Psychology (Wortley)

  • New preventive ideas

  • New technology

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Not all techniques equally suitable for all crimes:

  • Remove excuses best for “everyday” crimes

  • Reduce provocations best for closed environments

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Limitations (2)

Techniques overlap - Increasing effort can increase risk

Some preventive measures can serve more than one purpose

Bestusedto help thinkingat Response

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Clean Cars on NYC Subway (Reduce rewards)

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CCTV Installed in 1985 at University parking lots(Increase risks)