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animals.nationalgeographic.com. http://www.flickr.com/photos/klimari1/3739710668/. http://desktopwallpaper-s.com/12-3D-Art/-/Sound/. carlsafina.org. randommealoftheday.blogspot.com. SPECIAL SENSES. Chapter 17. 5 Special Senses. Olfaction Gustation Vision Equilibrium Hearing.

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special senses

animals.nationalgeographic.com

http://www.flickr.com/photos/klimari1/3739710668/

http://desktopwallpaper-s.com/12-3D-Art/-/Sound/

carlsafina.org

randommealoftheday.blogspot.com

SPECIAL SENSES
  • Chapter 17
5 special senses
5 Special Senses
  • Olfaction
  • Gustation
  • Vision
  • Equilibrium
  • Hearing
chemical senses
CHEMICAL SENSES
  • Olfaction & Gustation
olfaction
OLFACTION
  • Nasal concha
  • Olfactory epithelium
  • Olfactory receptor cells
  • Olfactory Pathways
gustation
GUSTATION
  • Lingual papillae
    • filiform, fungiform, circumvallate
  • Taste Receptors
    • Basal cells
    • Gustatory cells
    • Taste pore
gustatory discrimination
GUSTATORY DISCRIMINATION
  • Sweet
  • Salty
  • Sour
  • Bitter
  • Umami
  • Water
  • Calcium
vision1
Vision
  • Lacrimal gland produces tears:
    • Water & lysozyme
  • Tears combine with oil from tarsal gland
vision2
Vision
  • Three Tunics (Layers)
    • Fibrous
    • Vascular
    • Sensory
vision3
VISION
  • Lens
    • fibrous capsule
    • suspensory ligaments
    • crystallin protein
  • Accommodation

http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/366/1568/1250.abstract

visual physiology
VISUAL PHYSIOLOGY
  • Photoreceptors detect photons within visible light spectrum
  • Rods are used in dim light
    • peripheral and night vision
  • Cones are use in bright light
    • Sharp and color vision
rods cones
RODS & CONES
  • Discs
  • Rhodopsin=Opsin+Retinal
  • Dark adaptation
  • Light adaptation
color blindness
COLOR BLINDNESS
  • Non-functional cones
  • Protanope
  • Deuteranope
  • Tritanope
  • http://colorvisiontesting.com/what%20colorblind%20people%20see.htm
retinal processing
RETINAL PROCESSING
  • Ganglion cells are diverse
    • M cells
    • On-center neurons
    • Off-center neurons
    • P cells
  • Horizontal cells
  • Amacrine cells
inner ear
INNER EAR
  • Three chambers
    • Scala tympani
    • Scala vestibuli
    • Scala media (cochlear duct)
  • Spiral organ of corti
sound
SOUND
  • Measured in wavelengths
  • Frequency or cycles
    • Hertz=cycles per second
  • Pitch
  • Amplitude
  • Decibels=sound energy
equilibrium
EQUILIBRIUM
  • Static equilibrium
    • Saccule & utricle
  • Dynamic equilibrium
    • Semicircular ducts (canals)
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