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Jose H. Vargas, M.A. & Markus Kemmelmeier, Ph.D. University of Nevada, Reno April 24, 2009 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Ethnicity and Contemporary U.S. Culture: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Horizontal–Vertical Individualism–Collectivism. Jose H. Vargas, M.A. & Markus Kemmelmeier, Ph.D. University of Nevada, Reno April 24, 2009. Current Trends, Cultural Implications and Research Goals. Current Trends :

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Jose H. Vargas, M.A. & Markus Kemmelmeier, Ph.D. University of Nevada, Reno April 24, 2009

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Jose h vargas m a markus kemmelmeier ph d university of nevada reno april 24 2009

Ethnicity and Contemporary U.S. Culture: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Horizontal–Vertical Individualism–Collectivism

Jose H. Vargas, M.A. & Markus Kemmelmeier, Ph.D.

University of Nevada, Reno

April 24, 2009


Current trends cultural implications and research goals

Current Trends, Cultural Implications and Research Goals

  • Current Trends:

    • Increasing cultural diversity

    • U.S. Census  EurAm still majority population???

      • In 2000 Census, Latinos surpassed AfrAm as largest minority group (12.5% vs. 12.3%, respectively)

      • Between 1990-2000, Latino pop increased 52.9%

      • In 2003, 35% of immigrants to U.S. came from Asian countries


Current trends cultural implications and research goals1

Current Trends, Cultural Implications and Research Goals

  • Cultural Implications:

    • Traditionally, U.S. viewed as epitome of “individualism” (IND)

    • Given Census trends/cultural patterns  potential gradual dissolution of IND???


Individualism collectivism

Individualism–Collectivism

  • Triandis’ Conceptualization (1990s):

    • IND: emotional independence from collectivities

    • COL: emotional interdependence on collectivities

    • Accounts for power distance


Individualism collectivism con t

Individualism-Collectivism (con’t)

  • Hor-Ver INDCOL—Four Subscales:

    • Horizontal Individualism (HI):

      • Autonomy and uniqueness

      • e.g., “My personal identity is very important to me”

    • Horizontal Collectivism (HC):

      • Social harmony and social equality

      • e.g., “My happiness depends very much on the happiness of those around me”

    • Vertical Individualism (VI):

      • Personal achievement and competition

      • e.g., “Competition is the law of nature”

    • Vertical Collectivism (VC):

      • Social hierarchies and subordination of personal needs to ingroup

      • e.g., “I usually sacrifice my self-interest for the benefit of my group”


Reported differences in indcol among u s ethnic groups con t

Reported Differences in INDCOL among U.S. Ethnic Groups (con’t)

*TWO IMPORTANT STUDIES*

  • Coon & Kemmelmeier’s Study (2001):

    • Interesting Results:

      • AfrAms/AsiAms score higher on COL than EurAms

      • AfrAms displayed highest IND scores

    • Conclusions:

      • Not all ‘U.S. minorities’ display same form/degree of IND and COL

      • Ethnic diff in INDCOL may be linked to ethnic groups’ unique histories


Reported differences in indcol among u s ethnic groups con t1

Reported Differences in INDCOL among U.S. Ethnic Groups (con’t)

  • Oyserman et al.’s Study (2002):

    • Most comprehensive meta-analysis on INDCOL to date

    • Findings from Within-U.S. Comparisons:

      • AfrAms were highest on IND (not EurAms)

      • EurAms and LatAms did not differ on IND

      • Only comparisons between EurAms and AsiAms display expected pattern (i.e., EurAms were higher on IND and lower on COL vis-à-vis AsiAms)

    • Implication of Study: may be premature to assume “all U.S. minorities” are collectivists


U s ethnic groups different histories different cultural orientations

U.S. Ethnic Groups: Different Histories, Different Cultural Orientations

  • European American Sociohistory:

    • Traditional “carriers” of IND

  • African American Sociohistory:

    • Majority of current AfrAms are descendants of slaves

  • Asian American Sociohistory:

    • AsiAms emphasis on family (e.g., filial piety)

    • High degree of “assimilation”

  • Latino American Sociohistory:

    • LatAms descend from immigrants/native cultures

    • Strong familial leanings, religious influence & “work ethic”


Research question and goals

Research Question and Goals

  • Central Research Question:

    • Are increases in cult. diversity promoting divergence or convergence of cult. orientations among ethnic/racial Americans?

  • Research Goals:

    • To address concerns about IND and COL among ethnic/racial Americans

    • Meta-analysis of Horizontal-Vertical IND-COL (HVIC)


Meta analysis

Meta-Analysis

  • Inclusion Criteria:

    • Study uses INDCOL scale (Triandis & co.)

    • Study includes U.S. participants from at least 2 of the 4 ‘ethnic/racial groups’

    • Study provides RELEVANT data on at least 1 of the 4 HVIC

    • Current Sample Size = 22 independent samples


Meta analysis con t

Meta-Analysis (con’t)

  • Statistical Data:

    • Aggregated scale reliabilities (i.e., Cronbach’s α)

    • Aggregated mean differences (i.e., Cohen’s d)

    • Aggregated intercorrelations (i.e., Pearson’s r)


Results aggregated subscale reliabilities

Results—Aggregated Subscale Reliabilities

*Most mean weighted effect sizes (MWESs) exceeded alpha = .70

*Except for EurAm, non-sig Qwi stats suggest ‘homogeneity’ of MWESs

*For all 4 groups, HC and VI scales function similarly


Results aggregated mean differences

Results—Aggregated Mean Differences

*Six “paired comparison types”

*Only two stat sig. effects (in bold)


Results aggregated intercorrelations

Results—Aggregated Intercorrelations

*All but 4 ‘corr coefficients’ were stat sig. in positive direction

*One ‘corr coefficient’ was stat sig. in negative direction

*Data suggest that the 4 HVIC subscales are less ‘orthogonal’ than previously argued


Discussion conclusions

Discussion—Conclusions

  • Reliabilities and Means suggest ethnic/racial similarity (e.g., HC & VI scales)

  • Some mean diff indicate few areas of cultural diff

  • Correlations suggest pervasive group diff in “scale links”

  • EurAms and AsiAms did not differ on either subscales, inconsistent w/ past research

  • Future research on INDCOL should link it to H-V and sociohistory


Jose h vargas m a markus kemmelmeier ph d university of nevada reno april 24 2009

Thank you. Any questions?


References

References

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