8 3 the reactions of photosynthesis
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8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis

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8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis. Objectives:. Describe the structure and function of a chloroplast . Describe what happens in the light-dependent reactions . Explain what the Calvin Cycle is . Identify factors that affect the rate at which photosynthesis occurs. Inside a Chloroplast.

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objectives
Objectives:
  • Describe the structure and function of a chloroplast.
  • Describe what happens in the light-dependent reactions.
  • Explain what the Calvin Cycle is.
  • Identify factors that affect the rate at which photosynthesis occurs.
inside a chloroplast
Inside a Chloroplast
  • Inside a Chloroplast
      • In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts.

Plant

Chloroplast

Plant cells

inside a chloroplast1
Inside a Chloroplast
  • Chloroplasts contain thylakoids—saclike photosynthetic membranes.

Single

thylakoid

Chloroplast

inside a chloroplast2
Inside a Chloroplast
  • The reactions of photosynthesis include: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions, or Calvin cycle.
  • The light-dependent reactions take place within the thylakoid membranes.
  • The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma, which is the region outside the thylakoid membranes.
inside a chloroplast3
Inside a Chloroplast

CO2

H2O

Light

NADP+

ADP + P

Light- dependent reactions

Calvin cycle

Calvin Cycle

Chloroplast

Sugars

O2

electron carriers
Electron Carriers
  • Electron Carriers
      • When electrons in chlorophyll absorb sunlight, the electrons gain a great deal of energy.
      • Cells use electron carriers to transport these high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules.
      • These high-energy electrons are used to help build a variety of molecules the cell needs, including carbohydrates like glucose.
electron carriers1
Electron Carriers
  • One of these carrier molecules is a compound known as NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate).
  • NADP+ accepts and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion (H+).
  • This converts NADP + into NADPH.
  • NADPH can then carry high-energy electrons produced by light absorption in chlorophyll to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell.
light dependent reactions
Light-Dependent Reactions

The light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH.

the calvin cycle
The Calvin Cycle

The Calvin Cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars.

factors affecting photosynthesis
Factors Affecting Photosynthesis
  • Many factors affect the rate of photosynthesis, including:
    • Water
    • Temperature
    • Intensity of light
8 3 section assessment
8-3 Section Assessment
  • Summarize the light-dependent reactions.
  • What reactions make up the Calvin Cycle?
  • What is the function of NADPH?
  • What factors affect photosynthesis?
8 3 section assessment answers
8-3 Section AssessmentAnswers
  • The light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
  • The Calvin Cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars.
  • The main function of MADPH is to carry high-energy electrons produced by light absorption in chlorophyll to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell.
  • Factors that affect photosynthesis are water, temperature, and intensity of light.
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