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Air Quality Monitoring Program in Bangladesh: Trends Analysis of Criteria Pollutants and Source Apportionment of Particulate Matter in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Shahana Akhter 1 , Md. Aminul Islam 1 , A. M. Showkot Hossain 1 , S M Abdul Quadir 1 Amir H. Khan 2

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Air Quality Monitoring Program in Bangladesh: Trends Analysis of Criteria Pollutants and Source Apportionment of Particulate Matter in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Shahana Akhter1, Md. Aminul Islam1, A. M. Showkot Hossain1, S M Abdul Quadir 1 Amir H. Khan 2

Bilkis A. Begum3, M. Khaliquzzaman4 and Swapan K. Biswas3

1Department of Environment (DOE) Paribesh Bhaban, Agargaon, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh

2Department of Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh

3Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre, P.O.Box-164, Dhaka, Bangladesh

4The World Bank, 3A Paribag, Dhaka

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  • Air Quality Monitoring (AQMP and BAEC)
  • Basic statistics
  • Trend Analysis (Time Series)
  • Long range transport
  • Chemical Characterization
  • Source identifications
  • Local source identification

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Sampling locations

  • Continuous air quality monitoring Station at the Campus of the Parliament House, Dhaka
  • Farm Gate area in Dhaka, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of the proximity of major roadways
  • Semi-residential (AECD) area, which is located within the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka University Campus with relatively less traffic
  • Urban area in Rajshahi
  • Method of Analysis
  • Mass by weighing
  • BC by Reflectance measurement
  • Elemental Concentration by PIXE
  • Sampler
  • Hi-Vol (PM10)
  • Partisol (PM2.5)
  • GENT (PM10-2.2 and PM2.2)

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The Mean, standard deviation, geometric mean and geometric standard deviation (elemental concentration in mg m-3 ) of PM10 and PM2.5 at CAM Station in Dhaka

Variation of mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations from Apr02 to Mar04

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time series pattern of pm samples collected at cam station and a hot spot in dhaka
Time series pattern of PM samples collected at CAM Station and a Hot spot in Dhaka

PM10 and PM2.5 at CAMS

PM10-2.2 and PM2.2 at hot spot

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wind direction w r t seasons
Wind direction w.r.t. seasons

This indicates that PM concentrations in winter period may also influenced by the transboundary air pollution.

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positive matrix factorization
Positive Matrix Factorization

Receptor model

The atmosphere is a complex system and it is necessary to have methods available to assist in the identification of sources and apportionment of the observed pollutant concentrations to those sources. Such methods are called receptor model. They are focused on the behavior of the ambient environment at the point of impact as opposed to the source-oriented dispersion models that focus on the transport, dilution and transformations that occur beginning at the source and following the pollutants to the receptor or sampling site. These methods have been applied to airborne particulate matter.

Purpose: To identify the sources and apportion the contributions of all potential sources to the measured particulate matter mass

Xij= The jth species measured in the ith sample

gik=The contribution from the kth sources to the ith sample

fkj= The jth species mass fraction from the kth source

eij= Matrix of residuals that are not fit by the model

Qij= Uncertainty estimation

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Source profile and time variation of PM10-2.2

Source profile and time variation of PM2.2

Source Apportionment by PMF

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average percentage contributions of the sources at hot spot and semi residential sites in dhaka
Average percentage contributions of the sources at Hot spot and semi-residential sites in Dhaka

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January 01 2003


PM2.2 concentrations as a function of time showing the likely effect of banning two-stroke baby taxies on the air quality in Dhaka

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Variation of mean PM10 , PM2.2 and BC concentrations from June 2000 to May 2004

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Daily Air Quality Index Measured at CAMS by the Air Quality Management Project, Department of Environment (Period: April 2002 to November 2004)

43% healthy days 39% unhealthy days;

14% very unhealthy days 4% extremely unhealthy days

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thank you
Thank You


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