Essentials of Pathophysiology. Chapter 26 Acute Renal Failure and Chronic Kidney Disease. Acute renal failure is not a reversible process. Chronic renal failure leads to hyperkalemia and the risk for cardiac arrhythmias.
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Essentials of Pathophysiology
Chapter 26Acute Renal Failure and Chronic Kidney Disease
Typical Renal Failure Modes
Which type of acute renal failure (ARF) would be most likely to accompany benign prostatic hypertrophy?
Postrenal ARF occurs when the flow of urine is blocked by kidney stones, tumors, or an enlarged prostate gland. Because the male urethra passes through the prostate, if it is enlarged, the urethra may become blocked.
(Kellum, J.A. . A drug to prevent renal failure? Lancet 362,589-590.)
A man developed acute renal failure after emergency surgery for a severed left leg
Current Creatine / initial creatine
Casts are formed when cells are packed together in the tubule lumen
They block the tubule
When the mass of cells washes loose, it appears in the urine
Mr. J is an alcoholic with kidney problems
Vitamin D obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements is biologically inert and
must undergo addition of 2 –OH groups in the body for activation.
The first occurs in the liver and converts vitamin D to calcidiol.
The second occurs primarily in the kidney and forms calcitriol
Calcitrol is necessary for absorption of Ca2+ by the small intestine.
Which of the following renal disorders is characterized by increased BUN and creatinine levels?
In each disorder listed, the ability to remove nitrogenous waste is diminished. This causes nitrogenous compounds (BUN and creatinine) to accumulate in the blood.
A man has chronic renal failure.
blood flows through
vessels more swiftly
heart rate increases
increased workload on left heart
left ventricle dilation and
not enough oxygen to support LV
Tell whether the following statement is true or false.
CRF leads to decreased cardiac output (CO).
The increased blood pressure (HTN) and hypoxemia that accompany CRF lead to increased myocardial work (the heart has to work harder to meet the metabolic demands of body tissues). Eventually the heart becomes unable to meet these metabolic demands, and CO will decrease.