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Unit 2. Consolidating the Union. Annapolis Convention. Annapolis, MD-Sept. 11-Sept. 14, 1786 12 Delegates from 5 states (NJ, NY, PA, DE, and VA) Remedy issues that dealt with trade and commerce under the A of C Delegates felt there were not enough people there to make a binding agreement

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Unit 2

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Unit 2

Unit 2

Consolidating the Union


Annapolis convention

Annapolis Convention

  • Annapolis, MD-Sept. 11-Sept. 14, 1786

  • 12 Delegates from 5 states (NJ, NY, PA, DE, and VA)

  • Remedy issues that dealt with trade and commerce under the A of C

  • Delegates felt there were not enough people there to make a binding agreement

  • Made a report which led to the Philadelphia Convention in 1787


Philadelphia convention

Philadelphia Convention

May 14th, 1787


Commerce at the convention

Commerce at the Convention

  • The reason why they were at the convention

    • Remember Shays?

  • Southern Plantation Owners V. Northern Businessmen

    • Southerners opposed tariffs fearing they would damage the Southern economy which was heavily dependent upon trade.

    • Northerners wanted tariffs to protect their industries from foreign competition.

  • The Commerce Compromise:

    • The Constitution allows the federal government to tax imports but not exports.


Representation at the convention

Representation at the Convention

  • Big states v. Small states

    • Virginia Plan (written by James Madison introduced by Edmund Randolph)

      • Representation would be based on population in a bicameral (two house) legislature

    • New Jersey Plan (written and introduced by William Paterson)

      • Representation would be equal in a unicameral (one house) legislature


Representation at the convention1

Representation at the Convention

  • Connecticut Compromise (aka The Great Compromise)

    • Brought together by Roger Sherman

    • The VA plan would be implemented in the House of Representatives where it would be based on population

    • The NJ plan would be implemented in the Senate, where each state, no matter the size, would have 2 senators


Slavery at the convention

Slavery at the Convention

  • Should slaves count when it came to apportioning taxes and representation?

    • The South said yes for representation, no for taxes

    • The North said yes for taxes, no for representation

  • The North felt that because slaves were not citizens, they should not count for representation

  • What ended up being decided was the 3/5 compromise

    • Slaves would count as 3/5 of a person


Slavery at the convention1

Slavery at the Convention

  • The slave trade

    • Most states were in favor of cutting it off

      • Except SC and GA wanted slaves to work in their rice paddies and swamps that were filled with malaria

    • A compromise was reach that the slave trade could continue until 1807 and then after that, no more slaves could be imported from Africa/West Indies

      • Most state constitutions banned the trade (except GA)

    • SLAVE TRADE, NOT SLAVERY!


Federalists vs anti federalists sg 8

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists-SG #8


Ratification

Feds.

Madison (writer of Constitution) thought that if it was presented to the people of the states, they would ratify it.

The Constitution would be ratified if 9 out of the 13 states approved

Anti-feds

Constitution written in secret

They had no time to prepare arguments against it

Ratification


Federalist notables wealthier class of merchants and plantation owners

Federalist Notables-wealthier class of merchants and plantation owners


Anti federalists notables farmers tradesmen less likely to be apart of the wealthy elite

Anti-Federalists Notables-Farmers, tradesmen, less likely to be apart of the wealthy elite


Arguments for and against ratification

Federalists

For

A weak union of states will make the country more likely to have internal and external disruption

Anti-feds

Against

Feared an end to all self government in the states

Arguments for and against ratification


Views on which level of government should hold the power

Federalists

A strong central government would be able to regulate commerce (trade) more easily

Could create a more favorable situation of the economy to grow

Anti-Feds

Each independent state should have a sovereign, independent government

A country as large as the US could not be controlled by a national gov.

Views on which level of government should hold the power


Representative democracy v direct

Feds.

A representative democracy will keep it so that a faction will not get control because representatives will have to serve the national interest, not just that of a faction.

Need to limit representation based on population in the House and keep it equal (2 per state) in the Senate

Anti-feds.

Felt that Congress would become too aristocratic if there were not enough representatives for the population of each state

Representative Democracy v. Direct


Thoughts on what might happen in the future

Feds.

Must keep factions in control with a representative democracy

Factions are the most destructive thing there could be to a government

Anti-Feds.

The Constitution would give the country an entirely new and untested form of government

Thoughts on what might happen in the future


Unit 2

Federalist Papers-written by Madison and Hamilton primarily to persuade people to ratify the Constitution

Federalist 10-Probably the most read and most quoted of the papers


It worked

It worked!

Even though Federalists only set out to get 9 out of the 13 states to ratify, all 13 would ratify with Rhode Island being the last on May 29th, 1790


Unit 2

Delaware - December 7, 1787

Pennsylvania - December 12, 1787

New Jersey - December 18, 1787

Georgia - January 2, 1788

Connecticut - January 9, 1788

Massachusetts - February 6, 1788

Maryland - April 28, 1788

South Carolina - May 23, 1788

New Hampshire - June 21, 1788

Virginia - June 25, 1788

New York - July 26, 1788

North Carolina - November 21, 1789

Rhode Island - May 29, 1790


George washington s federalist administration

George Washington’s Federalist Administration

SG #9-10


Unit 2

April 30th, 1789


Cabinet appointments were made by washington and confirmed by the senate

Cabinet Appointments were made by Washington and confirmed by the Senate


Warnings against parties

George Washington: “However combinations or associations of the above description may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the power of the people and to usurp for themselves the reins of government, destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion.”

James Madison: “the public good is disregarded in the conflicts of rival parties…” and “…measures are too often decided, not according to the rules of justice and the rights of the minor party, but by the superior force of an interested and overbearing majority.”

Warnings Against Parties


Hamilton s financial program

Hamilton’s Financial Program

  • Assumption of State Debt by Federal government: Recommended that the federal gov. take over state debt. This would encourage states and federal bondholders to look to the federal gov. for eventual payoff.

    • Rich people would have a permanent stake in seeing the natl. gov. survive as they were the most likely to lend money.

      • “Father of the National Debt”


Jefferson s view on natl debt

Jefferson’s View on Natl. Debt

  • Jefferson wanted to pay all foreign debts back in full

  • no debt = stronger nation

  • Did not support giving government aid


Hamilton s financial program1

Hamilton’s Financial Program

  • Excise (sales) taxes on a variety of items including whiskey: paid by distillers of alcoholic beverages, falling most heavily on whiskey distillers (mostly western frontiersmen)

  • Increased tariffs: main goals were to raise money and keep American goods protected from foreign competition


Jefferson s view on whiskey excise and protective tariff

Jefferson’s view on Whiskey Excise and Protective Tariff

  • Whiskey Excise-Wanted to eliminate internal taxes

  • Protective Tariff-opposed protective tariffs


Bill of rights

Bill of Rights

  • James Madison wrote them and guided them through Congress

  • Adopted by the necessary number of states (9) in 1791

  • Inserted the 9th Amendment to reassure people that the 8 rights listed in BofR were not the only rights protected

  • Inserted 10th Amendment to reassure states’ rights supporters that states would still have powers delegated to them under the Constitution (trying to win over Anti-feds)


Loose constructionism of the constitution

Loose Constructionism of the Constitution

  • Elastic Clause (aka Necessary and Proper Clause, aka implied powers) is found in the enumerated (numbered powers) of Congress in Article I, Section 8

    • It allows the Government of the United States to "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution."


Strict constructionalism means following the constitution word for word

Strict Constructionalism means following the Constitution word for word

Thomas Jefferson argued that nowhere in the Constitution did it say anything about creating a natl. bank


Whiskey rebellion and reaction

Whiskey Rebellion and Reaction

  • 1794: Farmers in W. PA refused to pay whiskey sales tax and began terrorizing tax collectors

  • Washington calls militia from 3 states (15,000) and personally leads them into PA where the rebellion collapses

  • First use of the Militia law of 1792 to put down state rebellions

  • A dozen or so men were arrested and tried but release after Washington pardoned them


Treaty of greenville

Treaty of Greenville

  • Since 1783, Britain continued to retain a chain of northern frontier posts (despite Treaty of Paris)

    • Openly sold firearms and liquor to the Miami Confederacy in that area who terrorized Americans in that area

  • In 1794, Gen. “Mad Anthony” Wayne attacked the Miamis at the Battle of Fallen Timbers

    • Britain didn’t back the natives up and offered the US a peace treaty (Treaty of Greenville) that ceded present-day Ohio and Indiana


Pickney s treaty aka treaty of san lorenzo

Pickney’s Treaty (aka Treaty of San Lorenzo)

  • Made with Spain (1795), opened up the Mississippi R. to American navigation and ceded territory north of FL to US


Jay s treaty

Jay’s Treaty

  • Relationship between Britain and US not good after the Rev. War and they continued to do things to one another that would push them to the brink of war

  • John Jay was sent to England to resolve disagreements and on Nov. 19, 1794 it was signed averting war

    • Eliminated British control of western posts for 2 years

    • Britain would pay for damages of seized American ships

    • Required that America still pay up on the pre-Rev. debts they owed


John adams president

John Adams, President


Election of 1796

Election of 1796

  • Adams served as VP under Washington and chosen by Federalists

  • Democratic-Republicans got behind Jefferson

  • The election of 1796 would be the first “party” election

    • Tempers ran so high, Feds and Dem-Rep. would drink in separate taverns


Election of 17961

Jefferson

Outrage at Jay’s Treaty and put down of Whiskey Rebellion

Became Vice President because he got second

Adams

Ran off the Federalist line of supporting both issues

Won with support of New England

Election of 1796


John adams president1

John Adams, President

  • Stepping into Washington’s shoes

  • Hamilton (who was in charge of the war faction of the Fed. party) hated Adams

  • Inherited a quarrel with France


Party warfare

Party Warfare

  • The partisan disagreements that had destroyed people’s lives, sullied reputations and split America came to a head in 1798 during the Lyons-Griswold affair

  • Matthew Lyons (Rep) mocked aristocratic sympathies of Roger Griswold (Fed)

  • Griswold taunted Lyons about cowardice during Rev

  • Lyon spit tobacco juice in Griswold’s face

  • Griswold thrashed Lyon with a hickory cane

  • Lyon attacked Griswold with a set of fire tongs


Revolution of 1800 sg 12

Revolution of 1800SG #12


Election of 1800

Election of 1800

  • The disputed election of Thomas Jefferson did little to repair the split in politics as Hamilton came to support Jefferson over both Burr and Adams as the least worst of three evils.

  • TJ wins on the 36th vote in Congress after contentious debate/votes between Jefferson and Burr

  • Burr is ostracized from both his Republican Party despite winning the vice presidency and the Federalists, later killing Hamilton over his support of TJ and seemingly life long desire to sink Burr’s career


War of 1812

War of 1812

SG #15


What are some major events leading to the war of 1812

What are some major events leading to The War of 1812?

  • US shipping was being harassed, and cargo was seized.

    • Britain required licenses for ships bound for Europe

    • France confiscated cargo from licensed ships

  • Impressment of American sailors

    • Many British sailors became naturalized US citizens and deserted British vessels and joined American crews.

    • British Navy kidnapped these sailors off American ships and had them rejoin the British Navy


What are some major events leading to the war of 18121

What are some major events leading to The War of 1812?

  • Economic Diplomacy Fails

    • Embargo Act of 1807 halted all trade with Europe

    • Embargo is a government ban on trade with other countries

    • Embargo was unpopular in port cities, especially in the North


Jefferson farewell enter james madison

Jefferson FarewellEnter James Madison

  • Jefferson did not want to run for a 3rd term

  • Madison was Jefferson’s Secretary of State

  • Madison was an author of 30 of the 81 the Federalist Papers (including No. 10 and No. 51)

  • Considered the most important contributor to the Constitution

  • Also the shortest President -5’4


What was madison s role leading up to the war of 1812

What was Madison’s role leading up to The War of 1812?

  • Non-Intercourse Act

    • Forbade trade with France and Britain; however President could reopen trade when either France or Britain lifted restrictions

  • War Hawks

    • Southern congressmen favored war, even though it hurt the east


What were some of the benefits of going to war with britain

What were some of the benefits of going to war with Britain?

  • To allow reopening of trade

  • National Pride

  • To stop the impressment of sailors

  • CANADA!!!


What were some drawbacks to going to war

What were some drawbacks to going to war?

  • Not everyone in the US wanted to go to war

  • Military was small

  • Britain was a great Superpower and could crush us like a bug and we could lose territory that was gained in the Treaty of Paris or the Louisiana Purchase


Declaration of war

Declaration of War

  • June of 1812 Madison asked Congress for declaration of war

  • Vote was split along regional lines

  • War started with Invasion of Canada


Key battles

Key Battles

  • US Burns York (now Toronto)

    • US figured the Canadians would welcome the Americans and quickly join the US to expel Britain from North America…this did not happen

  • Am. Naval Officer Oliver “Hazard” Perry Defeated the British on Lake Erie

    • This gave the US control of Lake Erie

  • Britain Blockades the Eastern Seaboard

    • This prevented shipping from leaving, and made the war more unpopular in the Northeast


The roof is on fire

The Roof is on Fire…

  • In August 1814, British Forces Sailed into Chesapeake Bay and capture Washington D.C.

  • They burn the White House and the Capitol

  • Madison and Congress Barely escape


Oh say can you see

Oh Say Can You See…

  • Unlike D.C., Baltimore was Ready for the British

  • The City militia inflicted heavy casualties on the British

  • After bombarding Fort McHenry on September 13, 1814 The British abandon the attack

  • Francis Scott Key witnessed the bombardment and penned a poem which becomes the National Anthem.


Treaty of ghent

Treaty of Ghent

  • Treaty was Negotiated in Europe and was signed on Dec. 24, 1814 ending the war of 1812

  • The War ended in a stalemate, where no party gained or lost any territory.

  • The issue of impressment was not addressed, but faded on its own.


Battle of new orleans

Battle of New Orleans

  • Fought after the treaty was signed (but not ratified)

  • Why was New Orleans important?

  • Pirates and Frontiersman fought alongside US troops

  • Made Andrew Jackson a National hero and household name

  • Ensured treaty ratification


If the war of 1812 ended in a tie why was it important

If The War of 1812 ended in a tie, why was it important?

  • Gave the United States a National Identity

    • We were able to hold our own against the British

    • Started us thinking about continuing westward expansion

    • Ended bad feelings toward the British

  • Creates a hero in Andrew Jackson and the Western Frontiersmen


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