K endriya v idyalaya m isa c antt. Submitted by:. Submitted to :. S anjay s ir. P . Y aswanth K umar. NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCE OF ENRGY. Geothermal Energy Plant Geothermal energy plants generate electricity and heat by harnessing the heat energy contained within
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Submitted to :
P. Yaswanth Kumar
NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCE OF ENRGY
Geothermal Energy Plant
Geothermal energy plants generate electricity
and heat by harnessing the heat energy contained within
the earth. The earth transfers its energy to deep-lying
circulating water, which the plants access with wells and
pumps. Geothermal energy is attractive because it has a
low impact on the environment; however, there are few sites where geothermal energy can be extracted economically.
Geothermal Energy, energy contained in intense heat that continually flows outward from deep within Earth. This heat originates primarily in the core. Some heat is generated in the crust, the planet’s outer layer, by the decay of radioactive elements that are in all rocks. The crust, which is about 5 to 75 km thick, insulates the surface from the hot interior, which at the core may reach temperatures from 4000° to 7000° C (7200° to 12,600° F). Where the heat is concentrated near the surface, it can be used as a source of energy.
Formation Of Geysers
Geysers are caused when underground chambers of water are heated to the boiling point by volcanic rock. When heat causes the water to boil, pressure forces a superheated column of steam and water to the surface.
Because most geothermal reservoirs are capped by overlying rock, the heated water cannot escape, remaining underground instead. If a geothermal reservoir is sufficiently close to the surface, the heated water can be piped to the surface and used to produce energy.
At the beginning of the 21st century, there were some 380 geothermal power plants in 22 countries around the world with a combined installed capacity of about 8,000 megawatts. Geothermal energy provided 1.6 percent of the world’s total electricity, serving the electricity needs of about 60 million people, mostly in developing countries.
About 2.5 percent of the electricity produced in the United States came from geothermal power plants. The electricity produced from geothermal power in the United States represented about 37 percent of the world’s output of electricity from geothermal power. The United States, the Philippines, Italy, Mexico, Indonesia, Japan, New Zealand, and Iceland are the largest producers of geothermal energy.
There are three types of geothermal power plants: flash steam plants, dry steam plants, and binary plants.
2. Solar Energy
Surface of the Sun
The surface layer of the Sun is called the photosphere. Sometimes hot gas can shoot thousands of miles above the photosphere, as this picture shows.
Solar Energy, radiation produced by nuclear fusion reactions deep in the Sun’s core (see Nuclear Energy). The Sun provides almost all the heat and light Earth receives and therefore sustains every living being. The atmosphere and clouds absorb or scatter the other half of the incoming sunlight. The amount of light that reaches any particular point on the ground depends on the time of day, the day of the year, the amount of cloud cover, and the latitude at that point.
International Space Station
The International Space Station gets its power from solar panels.
These solar panels convert energy from sunlight directly into electricity. Solar power is a renewable source of energyit will never run out.
In this solar home in Corrales, New Mexico, a flat plate solar collector (lower right) provides energy to heat water pumped by the windmill. The water is stored in large drums on the side of the home.
Flat plate collectors utilize the sun’s energy to warm a carrier fluid, which in turn provides usable heat to a household. The carrier fluid, which in this case is water, flows through copper tubing in the solar collector, and in the process absorbs some of the sun’s energy. Next, the carrier fluid moves to the heat exchange, where the carrier fluid warms water that is used by the household. Finally, a pump moves the carrier fluid back to the solar collector to repeat the cycle.
These turbines are part of a wind farm located near Lake Benton, Minnesota. This region is one of the most productive wind energy sites in the Midwestern United States.
3. Wind Energy