Chapter 35 medication administration
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Chapter 35: Medication Administration. Bonnie M. Wivell, MS, RN, CNS. Introduction. Medication is a substance used in the Diagnosis Treatment Cure Relief Prevention of health alterations The nurse is responsible for the following in regard to medications: Preparation Administration

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Chapter 35: Medication Administration

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Chapter 35 medication administration

Chapter 35: Medication Administration

Bonnie M. Wivell, MS, RN, CNS


Introduction

Introduction

  • Medication is a substance used in the

    • Diagnosis

    • Treatment

    • Cure

    • Relief

    • Prevention of health alterations

  • The nurse is responsible for the following in regard to medications:

    • Preparation

    • Administration

    • Teaching

    • Evaluating response


Medication legislation and standards

Medication Legislation and Standards

  • The role of the U.S. government in regulation of the pharmaceutical industry is to protect the health of the people by ensuring that medications are safe and effective.

  • First law was passed in 1906

    • Pure Food and Drug Act: requires all meds to be free of impure products

  • Other federal medication laws

    • Control medication sales and distribution

    • Medical testing

    • Naming and labeling

    • Regulate controlled substances


Medication legislation and standards cont d

Medication Legislation and Standards Cont’d.

  • FDA = enforces laws, and ensures all meds on the market undergo vigorous testing before being sold to the public

  • MedWatch program = initiated in 1993 by FDA; a voluntary program that encourages nurses and other health care professions to report when a medication, product, or medical event causes serious harm to a client

  • State laws control substances not regulated by the federal government.

  • Local government regulates the use of alcohol and tobacco


Medication legislation and standards cont d1

Medication Legislation and Standards Cont’d.

  • An institution is concerned primarily with preventing poor health outcomes resulting from medication use

  • Medication Regulations and Nursing Practice are governed by individual state Nurse Practice Acts (NPAs)

  • NPAs have the most influence over nursing practice by defining the scope of a nurse’s professional functions and responsibilities

  • NPAs are broad in scope and nature so as not to limit the nurse’s functional ability

  • Health care agencies interpret the NPAs


Controlled substances

Controlled Substances

  • Controlled substances (AKA narcotics) are carefully controlled through federal and state guidelines.

  • Violation of the Controlled Substances Act is punishable by fines, imprisonment, and loss of nurse licensure.

  • See Box 35-1


Patient safety

Patient Safety

Patient Safety

To err is Human

7


Pharmacological concepts

Pharmacological Concepts

  • Drug Names

    • Generic: becomes the official name listed in publications and is the name generally used throughout the drug’s use

    • Chemical: chemicals that make up drug

    • Brand/Trade: the name under which a manufacturer markets a med; usually short and easy to remember

      • Many companies produce the same med so similarities in trade names are often confusing

  • Example:

    • Brand: Hydrochlorothiazide

    • Trade: Esidrix and HydroDiuril


Pharmacological concepts cont d

Pharmacological Concepts Cont’d.

  • Classification

    • The effect of the medication on a body system

    • The symptoms the medication relieves

    • The medication’s desired effect

    • Some medications are part of more than one class

  • Medication Forms

    • The form of the medication determines its route of administration

    • The composition of a medication enhances its absorption and metabolism

    • Many meds come in several forms: Tablets, Capsules, Elixirs, Suppositories


Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetics

  • Pharmacokinetics = the study of how meds enter the body, reach their site of action, metabolize, and exit the body

  • Absorption = passage of med into blood

    • Route of administration

    • Ability of med to dissolve

    • Blood flow to site of administration

    • BSA

    • Lipid solubility of a med


Distribution

Distribution

  • After absorption, distribution occurs within the body to tissues, organs, and to specific sites of action via blood stream.

  • Distribution depends on:

    • Circulation: limited blood flow can inhibit distribution

    • Membrane permeability

      • Blood brain barrier and Placenta

    • Protein Binding: most meds bind to albumin to some extent

      • Meds bound to proteins can’t do what they are supposed to

      • “Free” or unbound medication is the active form of the med

      • Decreased albumin due to disease process → more active medication → med toxicity


Metabolism

Metabolism

Medications are metabolized into a less potent or an inactive form.

Biotransformation occurs under the influence of enzymes that detoxify, degrade, and remove active chemicals.

Most biotransformation occurs in the liver

Other sites for metabolism: lungs, kidneys, blood, intestines


Excretion

Excretion

  • Medications are excreted through:

    • Kidney

    • Liver

    • Bowel

    • Lungs

    • Exocrine glands


Types of medication action

Types of Medication Action


Medication interactions

Medication Interactions

  • Occur when one medication modifies the action of another

  • A synergistic effect occurs when the combined effect of two medications is greater than the effect of the medications given separately.

    • Can be beneficial: Tylenol and Codeine

    • ETOH and antihistimines, antidepressants, or narcotics (all CNS depressants)

    • HTN may be treated with diuretic and vasodilator


Medication dose responses

Medication Dose Responses


Routes of administration

Routes of Administration


Effects of nutrition on drugs

Effects of Nutrition on Drugs


Systems of medication measurement

Systems of Medication Measurement

Requires the ability to compute medication doses accurately and correctly

Metric system: organized in units of 10

Apothecaries: older than metric

Household system: least accurate

Solution


Nursing knowledge base

Nursing Knowledge Base

  • Safe administration is imperative

  • Nursing process provides a framework for medication administration

  • Clinical calculations must be handled without error

    • Conversions in and between systems

    • Dose calculations

    • Pediatric and elderly calculations

    • ALWAYS double-check calculation and medication with a second nurse on high alert meds (insulin, heparin)


Prescriber s role

Prescriber’s Role

Prescriber can be physician, nurse practitioner, or physician’s assistant.

Prescribers must document the diagnosis, condition, or need for each medication.

Orders can be written, computer generated, verbal, or by telephone.

DO NOT use abbreviations on pages 701-703 when documenting med orders or other information about meds


Types of orders in acute care agencies

Types of Orders in Acute Care Agencies

  • Standing or Routine Medication Orders

  • PRN Orders: as needed

  • Single (one-time) Orders

  • STAT Orders: within 15 mins

  • Now Orders: up to 90 mins to administer

  • Prescriptions: taken outside the hospital


Communication of medication order

Communication of Medication Order

  • Order is written on client’s chart

    • By provider or RN receiving TO or VO

  • Order copied to Medication Administration Record (MAR)

  • MAR contains: name, room, bed, drug name, dose, route, times, allergies

  • Video


Components of medication orders

Components of Medication Orders

  • Client’s full name

  • Date and time that the order is written

  • Medication name

  • Dose

  • Route

  • Time and frequency of administration

  • PRN orders must have a reason

  • Signature


Chapter 35 medication administration

31


Medication administration

Medication Administration

  • Pharmacist’s role

  • Distribution system

  • Medication errors (near miss)

  • Medication Reconciliation

    • Verify

    • Clarify

    • Reconcile

    • Transmit

  • Nurse’s role

32


The six rights of medication administration

The Six Rights of Medication Administration

  • Right medication

  • Right dose

  • Right patient

  • Right route

  • Right time

  • Right documentation

  • Right to refuse


Where do drugs come from in the hospital

Where Do Drugs Come From in the Hospital?

  • Pyxis/Omnicell

    • Machine on the nursing unit where a stock supply of meds are stored

      • Commonly used meds

      • Narcotics

  • Packaged in the pharmacy and delivered to the nursing unit

    • Unit dose system: drugs are packaged individually

    • Liquids can be unit dose or bottles

      • Medication in bottles will be measured in Milliliters, teaspoons, ounces, etc.


Potential medication error

Potential Medication Error


Critical thinking

Critical Thinking

  • Knowledge: understand why you are giving a med; if you don’t know, look it up

  • Experience: skills become more refined

  • Attitudes: take adequate time to prepare and administer

  • Standards: ensure safe practice

    • 6 Rights


The nursing process and med administration

The Nursing Process and Med Administration

  • Assessment

    • Medical history

    • Allergies

    • Medication data

    • Diet history

    • Client’s perceptual or coordination problems

    • Client’s current condition

    • Client’s attitude about medication use

    • Client’s knowledge and understanding of medication therapy

    • Client’s learning needs


Nursing diagnosis

Nursing Diagnosis

  • Anxiety

  • Ineffective health maintenance

  • Health-seeking behaviors

  • Deficient knowledge (medications)

  • Noncompliance (medications)

  • Disturbed visual sensory perception

  • Impaired swallowing

  • Effective therapeutic regimen management

  • Ineffective therapeutic regimen management


Planning

Planning

  • Minimize distractions or interruptions when preparing and administering meds

  • This will limit errors

  • Prioritize care when administering meds

  • Collaboration

    • Prescriber

    • Pharmacist

    • Case manager/social worker


Implementation

Implementation

  • Health promotion

    • Client and family teaching

  • Acute care

    • Receiving med orders (write it down and read it back)

    • Correct transcription and communication of orders

    • Accurate dose calculation and measurement

    • Correct administration

    • Recording med administration

      • NEVER chart a med before administering it

  • Restorative care: med administration varies across care settings


Special considerations

Special Considerations

  • Infants and children

    • Vary in age, weight, surface area and the ability to absorb, metabolize, and excrete meds

    • Lower doses; special calculations

    • Alternative forms, such as liquids or elixirs Psychological prep

  • Older adults

    • Simplify

    • Assess swallowing

    • Some have greater sensitivity

  • Polypharmacy


Evaluation

Evaluation

  • You must monitor a client’s response to meds on an on-going basis

  • The goal of safe and effective med administration involves the client’s response to therapy and ability to assume responsibility for self-care

  • You will evaluate the effectiveness of nursing interventions when you assess whether the client has met goals/outcomes


Chapter 35 medication administration

  • Will cover actual administration and other issues surrounding administration during tomorrow’s class

  • QUESTIONS?


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