Sodium, Na. Gallium, Ga. CHEMISTRY 1000. METALS. NONMETALS. Topic #2: The Chemical Alphabet Summer 2007 Dr. Susan Lait. METALLOIDS. Forms of Carbon. Hydrogen (The “Groupless” Element).
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Topic #2: The Chemical Alphabet
Dr. Susan Lait
Forms of Carbon
D2O is also being used as part
of a neutrino detector at the
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory
(SNO) in Ontario.
(_____), hydrogen can achieve a
“noble gas”-like electron configuration
by either gaining an electron, losing
an electron or sharing an electron:
hydrated metal cation = “aqua complex”
We can see that H3O+ is serving as a proton donor and OH- is serving as a proton acceptor – just like in the Brønsted definition of acid-base chemistry. (Recall the definitions of the terms “strong acid” and “strong base”)
H2O (pKa = 14)
HCO3-1 (pKa = 10.3)
H2CO3 (pKa = 6.4)
CH3CO2H (pKa = 4.7)
Citric acid (pKa = 3.1)
HF (pKa = 3.1)
H3PO4 (pKa = 2.15)
H3O+ (pKa = 0) This includes all aqueous solutions of HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4 and H2SO4
Concentrated HNO3 (pKa = -1)
Concentrated H2SO4 (pKa = -3)
Concentrated HCl (pKa = -7)
The cation accepts electrons from oxygen (Lewis acid-base rxn).
In aqueous solutions, the most abundant – if weak – base is water. Aqua complexes with pKa values below 14 (i.e. all except the alkali metals) will react to some extent with water, giving an acidic solution.
As more base is added, more protons are removed. Which of the species in the diagram above would you expect to be soluble in water, and which will be more stable as solid lattices?