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Muscles - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Muscles . Types of Muscle. Skeletal Most common Attached to bone (via tendons) Voluntary Striated. Cardiac Muscle In the heart only Involuntary Striated Smooth Muscle Surrounds organs Slow, long contractions Involuntary Non-striated; forms dense sheets . The Neuromuscular System.

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types of muscle
Types of Muscle
  • Skeletal
    • Most common
    • Attached to bone (via tendons)
    • Voluntary
    • Striated

Cardiac Muscle

    • In the heart only
    • Involuntary
    • Striated
  • Smooth Muscle
    • Surrounds organs
    • Slow, long contractions
    • Involuntary
    • Non-striated; forms dense sheets
the neuromuscular system
The Neuromuscular System
  • Complex linking of the muscular and neurological systems
  • Constant use and practice improves the quality, efficiency and ability of these systems to work together
    • E.g. agility training
the motor unit
The Motor Unit
  • Nerves transmit impulses in waves- the resulting contraction is called a muscle twitch
  • 1 nerve + the muscle fibers it innervates = motor unit
  • 1 nerve stimulates many muscle fibers, thereby producing muscle movements.
    • 1 nerve + a few muscle fibers =fine movements (eg blinking)
    • 1 nerve + lots of fibers = gross/big movements (eg contraction of the quadriceps)
  • All-or-None Principle
    • When a motor unit is stimulated to contract, either ALL of the muscle fibers will contract, or none will
types of muscle contraction
Types of Muscle Contraction
  • Concentric
    • Muscle fibers shorten
    • E.g. bicep flexion
  • Eccentric
    • Muscle fibers lengthen
    • Eg bicep extension
  • Isometric
    • Contraction without change in length of muscle; no motion; decreased risk of injury
    • E.g. pushing against a wall; doing a abdominal plank.
muscle origin vs insertion
Muscle Origin vs Insertion
  • Origin
    • where the muscle attaches to more stationary of the bones of skeleton.
      • Usually more superior
  • Insertion
    • Where the muscle attaches to the bone that moves most
    • Usually more inferior
antagonistic pairs
Antagonistic Pairs
  • Skeletal muscles are arranged as opposing pairs
  • Agonist
    • Prime mover of the body part
    • Eg. During knee extension, quadriceps are the agonist
  • Antagonist
    • Counter-acts the agonist
    • Eg. During knee extension, hamstrings are the antagonist
label the following muscles of the lower limb
Label the following muscles of the lower limb:
  • Flexor hallicuslongus
  • Anterior tibialis
  • Soleus
  • Gastrocnemius
  • Patella
  • Quadriceps
  • Hamstrings
  • Gluteus medius, minimus, maximus
  • Abductor muscles
  • Adductor muscles
  • Peroneals
muscles of the leg and their functions
Muscles of the Leg and their Functions
  • Leg- refers to lower limb below the knee
  • Thigh = hip to knee


    • Figure out where each muscle is located- ie anterior, posterior, medial, lateral
  • Questions:
    • While out trail running, Marie steps on a root and experiences an eversion of her ankle.
      • a) What is this injury? (what happens to the sole of the foot)
      • b) Which muscles will be injured?
      • c) Which muscles would have contracted to aid ankle eversion?
    • Many athletes, especially women, have muscular imbalances between their quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups(quads are often stronger).
      • a) Why are these athletes at a higher risk for injury?
      • b) What joint is most likely to be injured?
      • c) What type of injury might result at this joint?
    • The gluteus maximus is one of the strongest muscles in the body.
      • a) What would happen to hip/thigh rotation if other muscles do not compensate for this strength?
      • b) Which muscles are the antagonists to hip extension by the glutiusmaximus?

Jeff sustained a serious injury to the left side of his trunk.

    • What muscle group(s) are affected?
    • What movements will be compromised?
  • What could happen if the diaphragm was punctured or torn in half?
  • A pregnant woman is in a car accident and sustains an injury to her rectus abdominus (baby is fine).
    • What might be the consequences?
  • Types:
    • Fibrous joints – no movement- eg sutures of the skull
    • Cartilaginous joints- some movement- eg between the vertebrae
    • Synovial joints- lots of movement
      • 6 common types:
      • Ball and socket (eg the hip, shoulder)
      • Gliding (eg foot)
      • Hinge (elbow, knee)
      • Pivot (neck)
      • Saddle (thumb)
      • Ellipsoid (wrist)
synovial joints
Synovial Joints
  • Separated by a lubricating fluid and cartilage
  • Joined by ligaments that also help form the joint capsule (surrounds and protects joint)
joint injuries
Joint Injuries
  • Tendinitis
    • Inflammation of a tendon via irritation due to overuse/abnormal use
    • Tx- rest, cold, heat therapy, anti-inflammatories
  • Tears, Sprains, Pulls
    • Tear/pull= injury to muscle
    • Sprain = injury to ligaments and tendons
    • 3 levels of severity: 1st degree injury is mild; 2nd is moderate; 3rd is severe
  • Dislocations
    • When bone displaced from original position
    • Symptoms:
      • Joint looks awkward/deformed
      • Painful to touch/move
      • Inability to use joint
injury treatment
Injury Treatment
  • Recognizing an Injury
    • SHARP
      • Swelling
      • Heat
      • Altered function
      • Red
      • Pain
  • Treating
    • RICE
      • Rest
      • Ice
      • Compression
      • Elevation
    • NEVER use heat to initially treat an injury
      • Why?
how can we protect our joints
How Can We Protect Our Joints?
  • strengthen surrounding muscles
  • Stretch muscles
  • Proper conditioning
  • Warm up before exercising
  • Proprioceptive training

Muscles Causing Movement at the Hip Joint

    • Iliopsoas Adductor Muscles
    • Gluteus Maximus
    • Gluteus Medius
  • Muscles Causing Movement at the Knee Joint
    • Sartorius
    • Quadriceps Group
      • Rectus Femoris
      • Vastus Muscles
    • Hamstring Group
      • Biceps Femoris
      • Semimembranosus
    • Semitendinosus Muscles Causing Movement at the Ankle and Foot
      • Tibialis Anterior
      • Peroneus Muscles
      • Gastrocnemius