Muscles
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Muscles PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Muscles . Types of Muscle. Skeletal Most common Attached to bone (via tendons) Voluntary Striated. Cardiac Muscle In the heart only Involuntary Striated Smooth Muscle Surrounds organs Slow, long contractions Involuntary Non-striated; forms dense sheets . The Neuromuscular System.

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Muscles

Muscles


Types of muscle

Types of Muscle

  • Skeletal

    • Most common

    • Attached to bone (via tendons)

    • Voluntary

    • Striated


Muscles

  • Cardiac Muscle

    • In the heart only

    • Involuntary

    • Striated

  • Smooth Muscle

    • Surrounds organs

    • Slow, long contractions

    • Involuntary

    • Non-striated; forms dense sheets


The neuromuscular system

The Neuromuscular System

  • Complex linking of the muscular and neurological systems

  • Constant use and practice improves the quality, efficiency and ability of these systems to work together

    • E.g. agility training


The motor unit

The Motor Unit

  • Nerves transmit impulses in waves- the resulting contraction is called a muscle twitch

  • 1 nerve + the muscle fibers it innervates = motor unit

  • 1 nerve stimulates many muscle fibers, thereby producing muscle movements.

    • 1 nerve + a few muscle fibers =fine movements (eg blinking)

    • 1 nerve + lots of fibers = gross/big movements (eg contraction of the quadriceps)

  • All-or-None Principle

    • When a motor unit is stimulated to contract, either ALL of the muscle fibers will contract, or none will


Types of muscle contraction

Types of Muscle Contraction

  • Concentric

    • Muscle fibers shorten

    • E.g. bicep flexion

  • Eccentric

    • Muscle fibers lengthen

    • Eg bicep extension

  • Isometric

    • Contraction without change in length of muscle; no motion; decreased risk of injury

    • E.g. pushing against a wall; doing a abdominal plank.


Muscles

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A1haS8hR1lE


Muscle origin vs insertion

Muscle Origin vs Insertion

  • Origin

    • where the muscle attaches to more stationary of the bones of skeleton.

      • Usually more superior

  • Insertion

    • Where the muscle attaches to the bone that moves most

    • Usually more inferior


Antagonistic pairs

Antagonistic Pairs

  • Skeletal muscles are arranged as opposing pairs

  • Agonist

    • Prime mover of the body part

    • Eg. During knee extension, quadriceps are the agonist

  • Antagonist

    • Counter-acts the agonist

    • Eg. During knee extension, hamstrings are the antagonist


Label the following muscles of the lower limb

Label the following muscles of the lower limb:

  • Flexor hallicuslongus

  • Anterior tibialis

  • Soleus

  • Gastrocnemius

  • Patella

  • Quadriceps

  • Hamstrings

  • Gluteus medius, minimus, maximus

  • Abductor muscles

  • Adductor muscles

  • Peroneals


Muscles

Can you label these muscles??


Muscles of the leg and their functions

Muscles of the Leg and their Functions

  • Leg- refers to lower limb below the knee

  • Thigh = hip to knee


Muscles of the thigh and hip

Muscles of the Thigh and Hip


Muscles

  • Groups:

    • Figure out where each muscle is located- ie anterior, posterior, medial, lateral

  • Questions:

    • While out trail running, Marie steps on a root and experiences an eversion of her ankle.

      • a) What is this injury? (what happens to the sole of the foot)

      • b) Which muscles will be injured?

      • c) Which muscles would have contracted to aid ankle eversion?

    • Many athletes, especially women, have muscular imbalances between their quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups(quads are often stronger).

      • a) Why are these athletes at a higher risk for injury?

      • b) What joint is most likely to be injured?

      • c) What type of injury might result at this joint?

    • The gluteus maximus is one of the strongest muscles in the body.

      • a) What would happen to hip/thigh rotation if other muscles do not compensate for this strength?

      • b) Which muscles are the antagonists to hip extension by the glutiusmaximus?


The trunk

The Trunk


Muscles

  • Jeff sustained a serious injury to the left side of his trunk.

    • What muscle group(s) are affected?

    • What movements will be compromised?

  • What could happen if the diaphragm was punctured or torn in half?

  • A pregnant woman is in a car accident and sustains an injury to her rectus abdominus (baby is fine).

    • What might be the consequences?


Shoulder and back

Shoulder and Back


Muscles

Arm


Joints

Joints

  • Types:

    • Fibrous joints – no movement- eg sutures of the skull

    • Cartilaginous joints- some movement- eg between the vertebrae

    • Synovial joints- lots of movement

      • 6 common types:

      • Ball and socket (eg the hip, shoulder)

      • Gliding (eg foot)

      • Hinge (elbow, knee)

      • Pivot (neck)

      • Saddle (thumb)

      • Ellipsoid (wrist)


Synovial joints

Synovial Joints

  • Separated by a lubricating fluid and cartilage

  • Joined by ligaments that also help form the joint capsule (surrounds and protects joint)


Joint injuries

Joint Injuries

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9QTCBrefXso

  • Tendinitis

    • Inflammation of a tendon via irritation due to overuse/abnormal use

    • Tx- rest, cold, heat therapy, anti-inflammatories

  • Tears, Sprains, Pulls

    • Tear/pull= injury to muscle

    • Sprain = injury to ligaments and tendons

    • 3 levels of severity: 1st degree injury is mild; 2nd is moderate; 3rd is severe

  • Dislocations

    • When bone displaced from original position

    • Symptoms:

      • Joint looks awkward/deformed

      • Painful to touch/move

      • Inability to use joint


Injury treatment

Injury Treatment

  • Recognizing an Injury

    • SHARP

      • Swelling

      • Heat

      • Altered function

      • Red

      • Pain

  • Treating

    • RICE

      • Rest

      • Ice

      • Compression

      • Elevation

    • NEVER use heat to initially treat an injury

      • Why?


How can we protect our joints

How Can We Protect Our Joints?

  • strengthen surrounding muscles

  • Stretch muscles

  • Proper conditioning

  • Warm up before exercising

  • Proprioceptive training


Muscles

  • Muscles Causing Movement at the Hip Joint

    • Iliopsoas Adductor Muscles

    • Gluteus Maximus

    • Gluteus Medius

  • Muscles Causing Movement at the Knee Joint

    • Sartorius

    • Quadriceps Group

      • Rectus Femoris

      • Vastus Muscles

    • Hamstring Group

      • Biceps Femoris

      • Semimembranosus

    • Semitendinosus Muscles Causing Movement at the Ankle and Foot

      • Tibialis Anterior

      • Peroneus Muscles

      • Gastrocnemius


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