Civil engineering surveying
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Civil Engineering Surveying. Adapted from: Roy Frank. Planning A Survey. Planning requires a well rounded understanding of surveying practices Process: Choice of accuracy required (depends on use to be made) Basic Control Topographic Photogrammetry. Planning A Survey. Existing Control

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Civil engineering surveying

Civil Engineering Surveying

Adapted from:

Roy Frank


Planning a survey

Planning A Survey

  • Planning requires a well rounded understanding of surveying practices

  • Process:

    • Choice of accuracy required (depends on use to be made)

      • Basic Control

      • Topographic

      • Photogrammetry


Planning a survey1

Planning A Survey

  • Existing Control

    • Search records for existing control in area

      • Illinois Geological Survey – Urbana, IL

      • National Geodetic Survey – Rolla, MO or Rockville, Maryland

  • Reconnaissance:

    • Search Procedure:

      • Description often dated

      • Can use GPS receiver (Lat. And Long)

      • Probe, detectors – often problems - brass


Planning a survey2

Planning A Survey

  • Choice of Instruments and Methods

    • Depends on availability, location, existing features, and accuracy

  • Computation and Drafting


Accuracy and errors

Accuracy and Errors

  • Accuracy depends on:

    • Precise instruments

    • Precise Methods

    • Good Planning

  • Example: Angle turned with theodolite, pointed with care; readings checked thus good precision. Angle’s of 2-3” expected, real results angle’s 15” = accuracy


Errors

Errors

  • 3 Types

    • Blunders

    • Systematic Error

    • Accidental Error

  • Blunder is a mistake, to help eliminate:

    • Every value to be recorded must be checked by some independent field observation


Errors1

Errors

  • Once check indicates that there is no blunder, field record must never be changed or destroyed

  • An overall check must be applied to every control survey. Make as many overall checks as possible.


Errors2

Errors

  • Systematic Error – an error that under the same conditions will always be of same size and sign.

  • Basic Rules to Eliminate:

    • All surveying equipment must be designed and used so that whenever possible systematic errors will be eliminated automatically

    • Systematic error which can not be eliminated must be evaluated and their relationship to conditions that cause them must be determined.

  • Example: Temperature Corrections


Errors3

Errors

  • Accidental Errors – (random errors) represent the limit of precision in the determination of a value

  • Corrected be laws of probability

    • Compass Rule and Least Squares


Hydrographic surveys

Hydrographic Surveys

  • Surveys and mapping of bodies of water and shorelines

  • Rivers and Lakes – Process different

    • Rivers

      • Normal process is to establish 2 parallel lines of control points on opposite sides

      • River Portion: 2 processes

        • EDM similar to radial

        • Dual instrument with position by angle and intersection

    • Lakes

      • Normal process same as river but generally do not have current problems


Overall process

Overall Process:

  • Establish control points both horizontal and vertical

  • Preplan where sections are to be taken (this is basis for control points on shore)

  • Cross sections taken

  • If EDM, radials taken from control points due to difficulty in obtaining shots under 300’

  • May have to combine cross sections and radial location to pick up anomalies not covered by cross sections


Gauging stations

Gauging Stations

  • Purpose is to install either manually read or automatic gauges to determine stream, river, lake, or ocean elevations

  • Process:

  • Establish system of BM’s throughout area gauges will be installed

  • Establish elevation mark at site for installation

  • After gauges are installed, check elevation of each


Topographic surveys

Topographic Surveys

  • 6 Basic Methods

  • Radial

  • Plus/Offset

    • Plus Offset

      • Establish baseline (Often centerline), establish points at station interval 50’, 100’, 200’

      • Tie planimetric data by distance down line plus distance right or left (looking up stationing)

      • Establish elevations on station points then elevation out a predetermined distance with shots at breaks


Topographic surveys1

Topographic Surveys

  • Due additional section to locate features in between stations

  • Equipment: Tape, Level, Rod, Transit, - Right Angle Prism?

  • Grid Method

    • Take cross Section Groups and Combine

    • Establish Grid baseline – often property line

    • Establish Perpendicular line

    • Both Marked at grid interval (25’, 50’)

    • Planimetric tied plus/offset in each grid

    • Grid laid out by double taping

    • Field notes 1 – 2 grids/page


  • Topographic surveys2

    Topographic Surveys

    • Photogrammetry

      • Limitations

        • Trees – Leaves off – no large growths of coniferous

        • Ground Cover – grass, thick weeds and vines, snow

        • Clear Sky

        • Tall Buildings

        • Due to these Limitations Illinois only has on the average of 2 weeks flying time


    Topographic surveys3

    Topographic Surveys

    • Scale – Photo

    • S = (f/H’)

    • Coordinates From Photos

    • XA = (xa/f)(H-ha)

    • YA = (ya/f)(H-ha)

    • Height of an object

    • r = radial dist. to top

    • d = radial dist. to top – radial dist. to bottom

    • h= d (H’) / r


    Topographic surveys4

    Topographic Surveys

    • GPS: Total Station System

      • Basic of GPS

        • Topo with GPS

        • Topo: Trimble Total Station (RTK)

      • Limitations:

        • Must be able to maintain satellite signal – Trees, Building

        • Signal Reflection (Multipath) – Buildings, Fences, Roofs

        • Debate over elevation (0.15’ +/- my belief)


    Topographic surveys5

    Topographic Surveys

    • Trace Contour

      • Used to identify several contours around an area

    • Plane Table Surveys

      • Rarely used

      • Method prepares a manuscript map in the field


    Mapping and map drafting

    Mapping and Map Drafting

    • 2 Basic Types of Maps used in Engineering

      • Line Drawing

      • Photogrametrically prepared manuscript or orthophoto map


    Mapping and map drafting1

    Mapping and Map Drafting

    • Datum in Mapping:

      • Datum used to correlate measurements, to determine elevations and horizontal positions for points at different locations

      • Topographic Maps using Symbols Show:

        • Spatial configuration of Earths surface (contours)

        • Natural Features (Lakes, Rivers, etc.)

        • Physical Changes caused by man


    Mapping and map drafting2

    Mapping and Map Drafting

    • Planning Maps

      • Used in planning Engineering work or overall planning at the urban, Regional, or National Levels

    • Plotting Contours:

      • Interpolation:

        • Estimation

        • Computation


    Mapping and map drafting3

    Mapping and Map Drafting

    • Contours

      • Characteristics of Contours:

        • Horizontal distance between contour lines is inversely proportionate to the slope

        • Uniform slopes have contours evenly spaced

        • Along plane surfaces (manmade) contour lines are straight and parallel

        • Contour lines are perpendicular to lines of steepest slope

        • All contours close upon themselves

        • Different contours do not merge or cross one another (except vertical walls, overhangs, cliffs) on map


    Mapping and map drafting4

    Mapping and Map Drafting

    • Factors that influence choice of map scale

      • Clarity with which features can be shown

      • Cost (larger scale – higher cost)

      • Correlation of Map data with related maps

      • Desired size of map sheet

      • Physical factors (number and character), nature of terrain, required contour interval


    Mapping and map drafting5

    Mapping and Map Drafting

    • Map Classifications

      • Based on American Society of Civil Engineering, Surveying, and Mapping Division

      • Design Maps:

        • Used to design and construct

    • Information shown on Maps:


    Mapping and map drafting6

    Mapping and Map Drafting

    • The following should be on a map:

      • Direction of Meridian (North)

      • Graphical Scale (Bar in case of reduction)

      • Legend or key of symbols

      • Title Block (identifiers)

      • Contour Interval

      • Datum to which both Horizontal and Vertical are Referenced

      • If coordinate base used – what system


    Mapping and map drafting7

    Mapping and Map Drafting

    • If map is to become public record (subdivision). It must contain in addition to the above:

      • Length of each line

      • Direction of each line (bearing or angles)

      • Subdivision numbering system (lot and block)

      • Location and Kind of monuments

      • Names of property owners (on site and adjacent)

      • Full description of Boundary

      • Certificate of Surveyor that map is correct


    Planning and estimating from topo maps

    Planning and Estimating from Topo Maps

    • Purpose of Topo maps

    • Profiles

    • Grade contour

    • Drainage Area

      • Limits determined by following characteristics:

        • Begins and ends at the point in the stream to which it applies

        • Passes through every saddle that divides drainage area

        • Often follows ridges

    • Reservoir Capacity


    Earthwork computations by average end area

    Earthwork Computations by Average End Area

    Prepare Cross Sections

    Differentiate between existing & proposed

    Planimeter Cross Sections

    Amount of cut & fill for each cross section

    Beginning and end stations have 0 value

    Compute Volume

    Conversion Constant: 1.852 = (100/27)/ 2 = {(Sta. Dist.)/ [CF/CY]} / 2


    Earthwork by average end area

    Earthwork by Average End Area

    • EARTHWORK BY AVERAGE END AREA (EXAMPLE)

    • END AREAS:

      STATIONCUT EMBANKMENT

      0+00 0 0

      1+00 10 156

      2+60 50 795

      3+00 197 1526

      4+80 5 110

      5+00 0 0


    Sample end area

    SAMPLE END AREA

    STATION SUM SUM

    CUT FILLCUT FILL D/100 CUT FILL CUT FILL

    0+00 0 0

    10 156 1.0 10 156 10 156

    1+00 10 156

    60 951 1.6 96 1522 106 1678

    2+60 50 795

    247 2321 0.4 99 929 205 2607

    3+00 197 1526

    202 1636 1.8 364 2945 569 5552

    4+80 5 110

    5 110 0.2 1 22 570 5574

    CUT: 570 X 1.852 = 1056 Cubic Yards

    EMBANKMENT: 5574 X 1.852 = 10324 Cubic Yards

    Compaction Factor = 25%, 10324 CY X 1.25 = 12905 CY Fill


    U s rectangular system

    U.S. Rectangular System

    • “IDEAL” Process:

    • Area divided by establishment of Principal Meridians and Baselines

    • Area divided into 24 mile square tracts quadrangle using guide meridians and Standards of Parallel (correction lines)

    • Divide 24 mile² tracts into 16 townships each 6 miles square

    • Divide townships into 36 one mile square sections


    U s rectangular system1

    U.S. Rectangular System

    • “IDEAL” Process:

    • Area divided by establishment of Principal Meridians and Baselines

    • Area divided into 24 mile square tracts quadrangle using guide meridians and Standards of Parallel (correction lines)

    • Divide 24 mile² tracts into 16 townships each 6 miles square

    • Divide townships into 36 one mile square sections


    Easements

    Easements

    • Easement is a Legal document which allows someone to do something to and or through your property

    • Types:

    • Access (ingress/egress)

    • Construction

    • Water rights

    • Utility


    Easement must describe

    Easement must Describe

    • What it is for (purpose)

    • Who between

      Must be signed by all who’s name appears on deed

    • Width of easement

    • Duration – specified number of years or perpetual or life

    • Description of where located

      Based on Rectangular system unless subdivision


    Description method for waterline easements

    Description Method for Waterline Easements

    • A strip 30 feet wide over, under, and across the _____ side of the _____ ¼ of the _____¼ of Section, ___, T__ __, R__ __of the ___ P.M., __________ County, Illinois said strip lying ______ of and adjacent to the _______ right of way line of the existing public road.


    Global positioning system gps

    Global Positioning System(GPS)

    • Worldwide system of navigation satellites by U.S. Department of Defense

    • Started in 1982

    • Civil GPS Service (CGS)

      • Views civil users in 3 groups:

        • Professional

        • Commercial

        • Recreational


    Global positioning system gps1

    Global Positioning System(GPS)

    • Provides info in 4 categories:

      • Planning information

      • Current status information

      • Historical information

      • Responses to user questions


    Global positioning system gps2

    Global Positioning System(GPS)

    • Information may be obtained from:

      • DOT/RSPA

        ATTN DMA 26

        Room 8405

        Washington, DC 20590

      • Commandant

        USCG Headquarters

        G-NRN-2

        2100 2nd Street SW

        Washington, DC 20593


    Global positioning system gps3

    Global Positioning System(GPS)

    • Information may be obtained from:

      • National Geodetic Survey

        NOAA; N/CG 142

        Rockwall 306

        Rockville, Maryland 20852


    Global positioning system gps4

    Global Positioning System(GPS)

    • Satellites broadcast on 2 bands

      • L1 modulated with P code (Precise Positioning Service – PPS)

      • L2 modulated with C/A code (Standard Positioning Service – SPS)

    • C/A mode intended for general use and capable of providing single point positioning

    • P mode is much more accurate but is reserved for military and government use


    Global positioning system gps5

    Global Positioning System(GPS)

    • Planning GPS Surveys – as important as the sophisticated needed to collect the data

    • Planning Phases:

      Presurvey reconnaissance; 2 stations site requirements; 3 connections to existing geodetic control; 4 network design; 5 satellite availability; 6 observing schedule


    Global positioning system gps6

    Global Positioning System(GPS)

    • Reconnaissance (presurvey)

      • Important to minimize delays or changes in observing schedule

      • Office planning

        • Obtain station descriptions

        • Prepare control diagrams

      • Preliminary Reconnaissance

        • Determine recoverability of existing control stations

        • Provide sketch showing existing and proposed stations

        • Suitability of existing stations for use by GPS


    Global positioning system gps7

    Global Positioning System(GPS)

    • Station site Selection (critical factors)

    • Obstructions with elevations greater than 15º-20º above horizontal should be avoided

    • Station mark must be suitable for occupation by tripod


    Global positioning system gps8

    Global Positioning System(GPS)

    • Networks Design

    • Design depends on

      • Surveys order and purpose

      • Number of receivers available

      • Desired spacing between stations

    • It is best to connect at least 3 existing geodetic control stations


    Global positioning system gps9

    Global Positioning System(GPS)

    • Field Operations

    • Survey team structure – determined totally by operation method

      • Numbers depends on:

      • Number of receivers

      • Number and length of observation stations

      • Time spent transporting equipment

      • Logistics and administrative needs


    Global positioning system gps10

    Global Positioning System(GPS)

    • Transportation

    • Monumentation

    • Power supply

    • Weather


    Global positioning system gps11

    Global Positioning System(GPS)

    • Total Process:

    • Establish receivers and have all track simultaneously

    • Data cleaned – search for ambiguities in data to identify correct integer values

    • All vector solutions are computed

      • 2-3 are accomplished by built in receiver computer

    • Data given by longitude and latitude


    New system navstar

    New System: NAVSTAR

    • L2C – civil signal – added to L2 with P code

      • Block II RM Satellites – Launch 2005-2009

    • L5 – New Frequency – more powerful and larger bandwidth

      • Provides easier signal acquisition and tracking

      • Block IIF Satellites

      • Functional in mid 2013


    Gps field data collection techniques

    GPS Field Data Collection Techniques

    • Static – minimum 3 receivers

      • Occupation/session 1-3 hours

      • PDOP < 6 with 4 satellites

      • Occupy 3 stations then move 2, leap frog techniques

    • Pseudo Static – can work with 2 receivers

      • Occupy for 2-5 minutes, each station must be occupied twice approximately 2 hours apart

      • Can loose satellite lock for short periods

      • PDOP < 5 with 4 satellites


    Gps field data collection techniques1

    GPS Field Data Collection Techniques

    • Kinematics – 2 or more receivers

      • Occupy 1-3 minutes

      • Must track same 4 satellites minimum prefer 5

      • 1 rec. at base, rover occupies 1 min. move, occupy 1 min. and at end go back to beginning and repeat

    • Stop and Go Kinematics – 2 bases and 1 rover

      • Occupation time 1-10 sec

      • PDOP < 6 with 4 satellites

    • Real Time (RTK) – base with radio transmitter and rover with radio receiver

      • Occupation 1-10 sec.

      • PDOP < 6


    Municipal surveys

    Municipal Surveys

    • Control Monuments and Associated Maps

      • Value: used by planners, engineers, architects, utilities, and surveyors

    • Planning Maps

    • Steps of Fieldwork

      • Establish Network of Major Control Mon.

      • Run traverse connecting major control points

      • Run levels and establish BM’s along traverse network


    Order for project

    Order for project

    • Monuments: Iron pin with bronze cap in 12’ dia PCC and extending min 18” below frost line (min 48”)

    • Traverse: 1st order (1:200,000 – 1:500,000)

      • Stations generally 1000’ – 1500’ apart

    • Leveling: base on NGS datum

      • 3-wire differential most often used

      • Avoid objects that are not permanent (fire hydrants, power poles, etc.)


    Products

    Products:

    • Base Map – shows all control station, traverse stations, BM’s, Streets, ROW, and Public Property

    • Topo Map

    • City Property Survey (location of all existing monuments)

    • Underground Map (utility map)


    Basic route survey and design

    Basic Route Survey and Design

    • Concept for Route

    • Reconnaissance Study

      • Small scale mapping of region (1”-500’ to 1”-200’)

      • Identify Alternative Routes (corridors)

      • Corridor Study

      • Public Hearings on selected corridor


    Basic route survey and design1

    Basic Route Survey and Design

    • Alignment Design

      • Preliminary medium scale mapping of corridor

      • Paper location study

      • Choose desired alignment

      • Field location survey

        • Set PI’s

        • Measure angle and distance between PI’s

        • Choose and design curves

        • Compute alignment

        • Set centerline stations (Hubs at 100’ STA. + PC & PT)

      • Modify alignment if needed


    Basic route survey and design2

    Basic Route Survey and Design

    • Roadway Design

      • Supplemental Large Scale Mapping

        • Horizontal mapping

        • Cross section baseline

      • Design typical sections

      • Design roadway items

      • Draft plans

      • Compute quantities

      • Prepare specifications


    Basic route survey and design3

    Basic Route Survey and Design

    • Right of way surveys

      • Requires parcel and strip maps

        • Determine ROW widths required

        • Perform property surveys

        • Prepare legal descriptions

        • Stake parcels


    Basic route survey and design4

    Basic Route Survey and Design

    • Construction surveys

      • Reference PI, PT, PC

      • Slope stake for rough grade

      • Stake drainage and structures

      • Layout roadway items

      • BlueTop for subgrade of final grade

      • Progress measurements and cross sections for pay quantities

      • As built surveys


    Sewer projects

    Sewer Projects

    • Firm under contract

    • Preliminary studies

      • General layout map

      • Buildings located on general layout

      • Treatment site search

      • Preliminary paper layout

        • Make sure every building and potential building site can be served

        • Manhole system placed on general layout


    Sewer projects1

    Sewer Projects

    • Preliminary filed work

      • Preliminary profiles

        • BM system established

        • Manholes set

        • Profiles run

        • Basement elevations acquired

      • Design mapping

        • Final plans

      • Treatment area

      • Boundary survey

      • Complete topo of area


    Sewer projects2

    Sewer Projects

    • Design process

      • Sewer line design

        • Preliminary profiles drawn

          • Basement elevations plotted

        • Manholes placed on profiles

        • Slope between manholes computed

        • Problem areas – alternate service routes selected

          • Manholes set in field

          • Profiles run

          • Revert to 3A


    Sewer projects3

    Sewer Projects

    • Treatment plant design

      • Topo map prepared

      • Type system verified

      • Treatment system sized based on existing and projected population

      • System designed

    • Plans drafted

      • Sewer plans normally prepared on plan/profile sheets


    Sewer projects4

    Sewer Projects

    • Treatment plant drawn using plan sheets and cross sections

    • Quantities computed

    • Specifications

      • Written instructions on how every item to be built

      • Include contract documents and bid proposal

  • Bidding procedure

    • Notice of bid advertised on local paper

    • Pre-bid meeting


  • Sewer projects5

    Sewer Projects

    • Bidding

      • Each contractor submits sealed bid

      • Bids opened and tabulated

      • Engineer reviews proposals

      • Engineer recommends which bid to accept

    • Contract awarded


    Sewer projects6

    Sewer Projects

    • Construction

      • Surveying

        • Contractor required to hire surveyor for stakeout

        • Manholes referenced

        • Staking methods

          • Batterboard method

          • Laser method

        • Measurement of quantities

    • As Built


    Water distribution systems

    Water distribution systems

    • Put under contract – water district formed

    • Preliminary studies

      • General layout prepared

      • Water district signs up users

      • Water source located

      • Waterlines placed on general layout

        • Hydraulic gradient plotted from USGS topo


    Water distribution systems1

    Water distribution systems

    • Pump station and water storage sites

      • Property acquired by perpetual easement or purchased

      • Boundary survey performed for each site

      • Topo each site

  • Field work

    • Plan preparation

      • Normally photogrammetrically

        • Flight plan sent on general layout

        • Take photos and post measure horizontal control

        • Plan sheets marked on photos using template


  • Water distribution systems2

    Water distribution systems

    • Waterlines placed on plan sheets

  • Crossings and easements

    • Every location where waterline crosses paved road, railroad – has to be topo, cross sectioned, and tied to nearest stationing or milepost

    • Crossings plotted and permits applied for – railroads, state DOT, township and county roads

    • Easement descriptions prepared


  • Water distribution systems3

    Water distribution systems

    • Final design

      • All waterlines and appurtenances on plans, easements, acquired and in docket form, rock excavation on plans

        • Quantities computed

        • System driven to make sure nothing missed

      • Tanks and P.S.

        • Designed and sized

        • Quantities computed


    Water distribution systems4

    Water distribution systems

    • Bidding

    • Construction

      • Water distribution system

        • Waterline stakeout

          • Each easement plotted on plans

          • Crossings as permitted staked

        • Quantities

      • Tanks and PS

        • Foundation staked

        • Must be checked for plumb

    • As built


    Architectural projects

    Architectural Projects

    • Firm Under contract

    • Preliminary fieldwork

      • Boundary survey

        • Description provided

        • Fieldwork

          • Monument search, traverse site

          • Compute data and analysis

          • Final stakeout

        • Easement and encroachment search

        • Plat of survey


    Architectural projects1

    Architectural Projects

    • Topo – grid method most common

      • Grid pattern 25’ – 100’

      • BM – USGS

      • Entire tract topo and adjacent areas to access

      • Utilities – nearest tied in

      • Include all objects above, on or below, ground

      • Prepare topo map

      • Field check map


    Architectural projects2

    Architectural Projects

    • Construction

      • Control

        • If large building – you may want to establish TBM’s on control Mon.

      • Stakeout

        • Convert architects dimensions to engineering

        • Layout clearing and excavation limits

        • Layout underground piping


    Architectural projects3

    Architectural Projects

    • Layout footings and foundations

    • Layout building corners and supports

    • Locate roads and parking areas

    • Locate lighting and other project extras

  • As built


  • Structure and terrain movement

    Structure and Terrain Movement

    • Used to monitor:

      • Movement of buildings ( x, y, and z)

      • Movement of bridges

      • Movement of dams

      • Landslides and earthquakes

      • Amusement park rides


    Structure and terrain movement1

    Structure and Terrain Movement

    • Description – error within system must be less than smallest movement to be observed

    • 2 groups of monuments installed

      • Reference or control monuments

      • Deformation or movement monuments


    Structure and terrain movement2

    Structure and Terrain Movement

    • Control – generally concrete pillars extending 3-4 feet out of ground with tribrach permanently attached

    • Movement monuments – for earthquake or landslide may be similar deep monuments


    Structure and terrain movement3

    Structure and Terrain Movement

    • Equipment:

      • GPS

      • Turned angles

      • Angle/Distance

      • Leveling


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