Stem arthropods
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Stem Arthropods. Anomalocaris. Opabinia. Hurdia. Erwin and Valentine, The Construction of Animal Biodiversity, 2013. Erwin and Valentine, The Construction of Animal Biodiversity, 2013. Genomic Complexity. (Erwin, 2009; Erwin & Valentine 2013). Erwin et al. 2011, Science.

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Stem Arthropods

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Stem arthropods

Stem Arthropods

Anomalocaris

Opabinia

Hurdia


Stem arthropods

Erwin and Valentine, The Construction of Animal Biodiversity, 2013


Stem arthropods

Erwin and Valentine, The Construction of Animal Biodiversity, 2013


Genomic complexity

Genomic Complexity

(Erwin, 2009; Erwin & Valentine 2013)


Stem arthropods

Erwin et al. 2011, Science


Stem arthropods

Strongylocentrotus


Sea urchin d grn

Sea Urchin dGRN

Biotapestry.org


Sea urchin endomesoderm grn

Sea Urchin endomesoderm GRN


Gene regulatory network structure

Gene Regulatory Network Structure

Erwin and Valentine, Forthcoming, 2012; after Davidson


Stem arthropods

Davidson & Erwin, 2009


Stem arthropods

Increase in miRNA families; complexity

of dGRN interactions

Origin of Developmental

Toolkit

Origin of Eumetazoa

Most signalling

pathways

present


Stem arthropods

Fedonkin et al The Rise of Animals, 2007


Stem arthropods

Erwin and Valentine, Forthcoming, 2012


Stem arthropods

Ecosystem Engineering

Species 2

Species 1

Natural selection

Natural selection

Et

Gene pool

Gene pool

Ecological

Spillover

Ecological inheritance

Genetic inheritance

Genetic inheritance

Natural selection

Natural selection

Et+1

Gene pool

Gene pool

Ecological

Spillover


Cambrian ecosystem engineering

Cambrian Ecosystem Engineering

  • Archaeocyathid reefs (+)

  • Sponges & other filter feeders (+)

  • Burrowed sediments (+/-)

  • Shelly substrates (+)

  • Mesoozooplankton(+)


Ecological spillovers

Ecological Spillovers

  • Sponges: sequestering carbon via filtration. Oxidation of oceans allow increased production of collagen.

  • Burrowing: change in S isotopes, enhances primary productivity in seds, increases biodiversity


P p definitions

P & P Definitions

  • Innovation “improve on existing ways of doing things” (which sounds to a biologist like adaptation)

  • Inventions “change the ways things are done”


Stem arthropods

Invention & Innovation

  • Invention is the creation of something new and distinct (contrast with variation on established themes)

  • Innovation occurs when inventions become economically or ecologically significant

Joseph

Schumpeter

(1883-1950


Stem arthropods

Increase in miRNA families; complexity

of dGRN interactions

Origin of Developmental

Toolkit

Origin of Eumetazoa

Most signalling

pathways

present


Defining novelty

Defining Novelty

  • Are ‘novelty’ and ‘innovation’ synonymous?

  • Character based: new construction elements of a body plan (not homologous to pre-existing structure)

  • Process based: novelty should involve a transition between adaptive peaks and a breakdown of ancestral developmental constraints so that new sorts of variation are generated (Halgrimsson et a. 2012 J. Exp. Zool)


Stem arthropods

  • Evolutionary novelty originates when part of the body acquires individuality and quasi-independence

  • Involves origin of new character identity rather than character state (homology)


How are new evolutionary spaces created

How are new evolutionary spaces created?

  • Potentiated by broader environmental setting (physical, genetic, ecologic)

  • Actualized by genetic and developmental innovations leading to a new clade

  • Refined by further developmental and ecological changes

  • Realized as innovations by ecological expansion and evolutionary success


Mechanisms of organizational genesis

Mechanisms of Organizational Genesis

  • Transposition and refunctionality (var)

  • Anchoring diversity (ecology)

  • Incorporation and detachment (var)

  • Migration and homology (niche const)

  • Conflict displacement/dual inclusion (ETI)

  • Purge and mass mobilization (ecology)

  • Privatization and Business groups (ecol/ETI)

  • Robust action and multivocality (?)


Nature of contingency

Nature of Contingency

  • Sampling error

  • Unpredictability of the course of history

  • Sensitivity to initial conditions (Beatty 2006)

  • Sensitivity to external disturbance

  • Macroevolutionary stochasticity


Nature of contingency1

Nature of Contingency

  • Sampling error

  • Unpredictability of the course of history

  • Sensitivity to initial conditions (Beatty 2006)

  • Sensitivity to external disturbance

  • Macroevolutionary stochasticity

    And does the ‘topography’ of historical contingency change over time?


Modern synthesis

Modern Synthesis

  • Transmission Genetics

  • Simple path from genotype to phenotype

  • Primacy of genetic inheritance

  • Selection within populations as primary driver of evolution

  • Opportunistic

  • Uniformitarian


Emerging perspectives

Emerging Perspectives

  • No simple mapping from genotype to phenotype (evo-devo)

  • Multiple forms of inheritance

  • Multiple levels of selection

  • Important roles for mutation and drift in addition to selection

  • Macroevolutionary lags

  • Non-uniformitarian


Search vs construction

Search Vs Construction

  • Innovation is often described as search through a space of “the adjacent possible” (Kaufmann, Wagner)


Stem arthropods

Grassland Evolution


Grass phylogeny

Grass Phylogeny

Kellogg, 2001, Plant Physiology


Macroevolutionary lags

Macroevolutionary Lags


How are new evolutionary spaces created1

How are new evolutionary spaces created?

  • Potentiated by broader environmental setting (physical, genetic, ecologic)


How are new evolutionary spaces created2

How are new evolutionary spaces created?

  • Potentiated by broader environmental setting (physical, genetic, ecologic)

  • Actualized by genetic and developmental innovations leading to a new clade


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