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PAV-OSTEOLOGY. OSTEOLOGY. OSTEOLOGY : is a science which learn about bones and their relation Bones are connected each other term as : skeleton. Skeleton : is applied to the frame-work of hard structures which supports and protects the soft tissue of animals.

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Pav osteology

PAV-OSTEOLOGY


Osteology

OSTEOLOGY

OSTEOLOGY : is a science which learn about bones and their relation

Bones are connectedeachother term as: skeleton

  • Skeleton: is applied to the frame-work of hard structureswhich supports and protects the soft tissue of animals.


Bones system and their relationship

Bones System and their relationship

  • FERTILISATION  ZYGOTE (mitosis: cleavage)  MORULA  BLASTULA  GASTRULA  divides into 3:

    - ectoderm : external layer skin & nerve

    - endoderm: inner layer viscera

    - mesoderm: between ecto & endoderm 

    muscles and bones.


Function of the skeleton

FUNCTION OF THE SKELETON

  • SUPPORT THE BODY

  • MAKE THE SHAPE OF THE BODY

  • PROTECK WEAK ORGANS

  • PASSIVE MOVEMENT ORGAN

  • PLACE FOR FIXING MUSCLE

  • PLACE FOR PRODUCES BLOOD

  • RESERVOIR CHEMICAL AGENT: Ca & P


Pav osteology

THE SKELETON MAY BE DIVIDED PRIMARY INTO THREE PARTS:

SKELETON/ AXIALIS

Collumnar Vertebralis

Cranium

Sternum

Costae, Pelvis

SKELETON APPENDICULARIS

Ossa Extremitas Cranialis et Caudalis

SKELETON VISCERALIS : consists of certain bones developed in the substance of some of the viscera or soft organ

Os. Vesali os Hyoideus

Os. Penis os Cordis

Os. Glandis


Pav osteology

SKELETON AXIALIS

(1) Collumnar Vertebralis, composes of :

Ossa. Cranii,

Cervicalis, Thoracalis, Lumbalis,

Sacralis and Coccygealis

(2) Ossa Costae, Sternum, Clavicula, Scapula,Coxae

(os Coxae, composes of: Ossa pubic, ilium and ischiadicum)


Skeleton appendicularis

SKELETON APPENDICULARIS

Extremitas Cranialis :

Ossa Humerus, Radius-Ulna, Carpal, Metacarpal, Phalangis/digitalis

Extremitas Caudalis :

Ossa Femuralis, Tibia-Fibula, Tarsal, Metatarsal, Phalangis/digitalis


According their bones shape

ACCORDING THEIR BONES SHAPE

  • Ossa Longa (lonng)

  • Ossa Plana (flat)

  • Ossa Brevia (short)

  • Ossa Irregularis (irregular)


Pav osteology

os brevia

os plana

os longa


Ossa longa long bone

OSSA LONGA(long bone)


Ossa plana flat bone

Ossa plana(flat bone)


Ossa brevia short bone

OSSA BREVIA(short bone)


Ossa irregularia

OSSA IRREGULARIA


The amount of the bones

THE AMOUNT OF THE BONES

  • Each breed have different amount

  • example: horse 205 bones

    cattle 191 – 193 bones

    chicken 160 boness

    human 206 bones (old), 270 (young)

    This condition is depended by breed(ras) and age.


Development and growth of bone osteogenesis

DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OFBONE(osteogenesis)

  • 1.osteogenesis intramembranosa (desmalis = primer): cel-cel mesenchym osteoblast  osteocyt  matrix become gel & solid (osteoid)  calcification  punctum ossification.

  • 2. osteogenesis intracartilagenosa (enchondralis = secundair):

    started by cartilage : cel2 mesenchym chondroblast chondrocyt (fit length) ossification.

    Osteoblast : destroy bone layer in order to make the shape.


Punctum ossification

Punctum ossification

  • DEVELOPMENT :

  • Interstitial development

    ( from the middle of tissue )

  • appostitional development

    (fron the lateral, the tissue change in order to fix bone layer)


Punctum ossification vertebrata post natal

GROUP I

Horse nil

Cattle nil

Sheep nil

GROUP II

Man 31

Rabbit 32

Dog 34

Cat 34

Pig 3

Guinea pig 3

PUNCTUM OSSIFICATION VERTEBRATA post natal


Sexual and body mature

SEXUAL AND BODY MATURE

  • BREED SEXUAL M BODY M

  • horse 1 year 4-5 years

  • cattle 5-9 months 4-5 years

  • Sheep/goat 6 months 4-5 years

  • pig 3-4 months 4-7 years

  • Dog 8 months 1,5-2 year


Bone structure

BONE STRUCTURE

  • Bone mainly compose of bone tissue, but as an organ, it have layer term as periosteum, endosteum, medulla ossium, blood vessels and nerves.

  • According to the architecture :

    1. compact substance.

    2. spongiosa substance

    In the long bone have medullar cavity.


Pav osteology

  • Periosteum: is a membrane which enclose superficial surface of bone, except at the part which is lined by cartilage.

  • Endosteum: is a thin fibrous membrane which enclose medullare cavity and big Haversian canal.

  • Medulla ossium: placed between spongiosum bone and medullar cavity in the long bone.

    in the adult animals have 2 variation:

    as red and yellow:


Pav osteology

  • In the young animals only have red (medulla ossium rubra), although then a part has change to be yellow (medulla ossium flava)

  • Medulla ossium rubra contains several type characteristic cells and as an substansia to make blood.

  • Medulla ossium flava : contains fatty tissue.


Blood vessels nerves

BLOOD VESSELS & NERVES

  • composes 2 artery : periosteal and medullaris

  • nutritional foramen : hole in bone for passing through blood vessels  give nutrition.

  • Nerves distribute together with blood vessels. nerve ending in the periosteum (corpuscle Vater-Pacini) may be as sensoris, and probably as connection with muscle sense.


Bonestructure

BoneStructure

  • macroscopic structure

  • microscopic structure

  • chemical and physical structure


Macroscopic structure

MACROSCOPIC STRUCTURE

SUBSTANSIA SPONGIOSA

SUBSTANSIA COMPACTA


Compact and spons bones

compact and spons bones

spongiosa bone

compact bone


Part os longa

part os longa

EPIPHYSA

DIAPHISA


Ossa pneumatica

Ossa pneumatica

  • SINUS :air spaces within compact substance contain air instead of spongy bone and marrow and, are called pneumatic bones. The cavity are term as sinus, the communicate indirectly with external air

SINUS


Physic os longa

Physic os longa

capsula cartilago

Osseous

epiphysis

epiphise plate

Osseous

metaphisis


Physical strength of bone

Physical strength of bone

  • The bone of just death animal has yellowish white color.

  • If it dip or boil s and give a chemical agent to eliminate stainbecome white.

  • Berat jenis fresh mass bone: 1,9

  • The bone is hard & strong enough for pressure

  • Strength pressure 20.000 pound per suare inch, strength of pulling 15.000 lb/inch² which more strong than white oak trees.


Chemical and physical properties of bone

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BONE

  • Dried bone consists of organic and in organic matter which ratio 1 : 2.

  • Removal of organic matter by heat does not change the general form, but reduces the weight about 1/3 and makes bone very fragile

  • Decalcification, not change the form and size, but renders it soft and pliable.

  • Organic matter (ossein) boils  gelatin.


Chemical structure physic

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE & PHYSIC

chemis: organic : inorganic 1:2

composition bone:

gelatin 33,30%

kalsium fosfat 57,35%

kalsium karbonat 3,85%

magnesium fosfat 2,05%

natrium karbonat& klorida 3,45%


Parts of bones

Parts of Bones

Periosteum / endosteum:

has capability to make new bone layer

cartilage: its for elascity and pressure absorber joint between 2 bones.

Tendo, ligament: fixing tissue between bones or muscles.


Bones terms

BONES TERMS

Processus : bone elevation usually long

Tuberositas (tuber) :big protruded bone and round form, but it’s not make a joint.

Tuberculum: small protruded bone

Trochanter :its use for several protruded bone and its not make a joint.

Spina (processus spinosus) : high protruded bone, usually flat andsometimes sharp


Lumbal bone

LUMBAL BONE

Proc transversus


Proc spinosus

PROC SPINOSUS

Proc spinosus


Term of form structure

Term of form/ structure

Sinus

Processus

Fissura

incissura

cavum

sinus

angulus


Pav osteology

Crista :elevation of bone which sharp edge.

Linea : very small elevation = line

Caput : head = proximal end which enlarger for fitting the joint, probably connectedwith body/corpus by constricted area term as neck (collum)

Collum : neck

Condyl (condylus) : bone elevationwhich cylendrical form for fitting the joint.

Epicondylus : cantinuation of condyl which not make joint.


Pav osteology

Trochlea : pulley form(katrol)for mass joint

Cavitasglenoidalis : low concavejoint(dangkal).

Cavitascotyloid (acetabulum) : concavejoint which is deep.

Facet : usually forsmall joint surface and it’s notso elevated their concave or convexsurface.

Fossa : concave/ curve

Fovea : concave/ curve

Alae: wing


Pav osteology

Sulcus : long depression like a canal.

Impressio : depression cause of pressure another organ.

Foramen : hole for passing blood vessels, nerves, etc.

canalis : long holelike a tube

Fissura : space/ space within bone.

Incissura : cracking bone.

Sinus : air spaces within the compact substance, this cavities term as sinuses, are lined with mucous membrane & they communicateindirectly with external air


Joints syndesmology

JOINTS / SYNDESMOLOGY

  • Is formed by the union of two or more bones or cartilages by other tissue.

  • The uniting medium is chiefly fibrous fibrous tissue or cartilage, or a mixture of these.

  • Union of parts of the skeleton by muscles term as SYNSARCOSIS


Classification

CLASSIFICATION

  • 1. Fibrous joint (synsarcosis): the segment are united by fibrous tissue, often term as fixed or immovable joints.

  • 2. cartilaginous joint (amphiarthrosis): the segment are united by fibrocartilages or hyaline cartilage, or combination of the two.

  • 3. synovial joint ( diarthrosis)


Fibrous joints

FIBROUS JOINTS

  • 1. SUTURE: the adjacent bones are closely united by fibrous tissue – sutural ligament:- suture serrata: sutura interfrontal

    - suture squamosa: between

    temporal and parietal bones - sutura plana(harmonia): internasal suture

  • 2. SYNDESMOSIS: the uniting medium is white fibrous or elastic tussue or mixture: exp: metacarpal bones.

  • 3. GOMPHOSIS: implantation of the teeth


Cartilaginous joints

CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS

  • 1. SYNCHONDROSIS (hyaline cartilage joints): it’s a temporary one, then the cartilage is converted into bone: epiphysis.

  • 2. SYMPHYSIS (fibrocartilaginous joints):

    exp: symphysis pelvis , sternebrae.


Joints between bones juncturae ossium

JOINTS BETWEEN BONES(juncturae ossium)

  • JOINTS = syndesmology (diarthrosis)

  • requirements:

    1. articular surface

    2. cartilago

    3. capsula synoviale

    4. ligamentum

    5. discus and meniscus

    6. marginal cartilago (labrum

    gleniodale, acetabulare)


Chemical physically structure

CHEMICAL & PHYSICALLY STRUCTURE

  • chemic: organic : an organic 1:2

  • composition :

    gelatin 33,30%

    calcium phosphat 57,35%

    calcium carbonat 3,85%

    magnesium phosphat 2,05%

    natrium carbonat& clorida 3,45%


Supporting of the bones

Supporting of the bones

  • Periosteum / endosteum:

    it can make a new layer outside and inside of the bone

  • Soft bone (cartilago): it useful for joints shock absorbers between 2 bones.

  • Tendon, ligament: elastic tissue that fix between 2 bones or with muscles.


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