PAV-OSTEOLOGY. OSTEOLOGY. OSTEOLOGY : is a science which learn about bones and their relation Bones are connected each other term as : skeleton. Skeleton : is applied to the frame-work of hard structures which supports and protects the soft tissue of animals.
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OSTEOLOGY : is a science which learn about bones and their relation
Bones are connectedeachother term as: skeleton
- ectoderm : external layer skin & nerve
- endoderm: inner layer viscera
- mesoderm: between ecto & endoderm
muscles and bones.
THE SKELETON MAY BE DIVIDED PRIMARY INTO THREE PARTS:
Ossa Extremitas Cranialis et Caudalis
SKELETON VISCERALIS : consists of certain bones developed in the substance of some of the viscera or soft organ
Os. Vesali os Hyoideus
Os. Penis os Cordis
(1) Collumnar Vertebralis, composes of :
Cervicalis, Thoracalis, Lumbalis,
Sacralis and Coccygealis
(2) Ossa Costae, Sternum, Clavicula, Scapula,Coxae
(os Coxae, composes of: Ossa pubic, ilium and ischiadicum)
Extremitas Cranialis :
Ossa Humerus, Radius-Ulna, Carpal, Metacarpal, Phalangis/digitalis
Extremitas Caudalis :
Ossa Femuralis, Tibia-Fibula, Tarsal, Metatarsal, Phalangis/digitalis
cattle 191 – 193 bones
chicken 160 boness
human 206 bones (old), 270 (young)
This condition is depended by breed(ras) and age.
started by cartilage : cel2 mesenchym chondroblast chondrocyt (fit length) ossification.
Osteoblast : destroy bone layer in order to make the shape.
( from the middle of tissue )
(fron the lateral, the tissue change in order to fix bone layer)
Guinea pig 3
1. compact substance.
2. spongiosa substance
In the long bone have medullar cavity.
in the adult animals have 2 variation:
as red and yellow:
chemis: organic : inorganic 1:2
kalsium fosfat 57,35%
kalsium karbonat 3,85%
magnesium fosfat 2,05%
natrium karbonat& klorida 3,45%
Periosteum / endosteum:
has capability to make new bone layer
cartilage: its for elascity and pressure absorber joint between 2 bones.
Tendo, ligament: fixing tissue between bones or muscles.
Processus : bone elevation usually long
Tuberositas (tuber) :big protruded bone and round form, but it’s not make a joint.
Tuberculum: small protruded bone
Trochanter :its use for several protruded bone and its not make a joint.
Spina (processus spinosus) : high protruded bone, usually flat andsometimes sharp
Crista :elevation of bone which sharp edge.
Linea : very small elevation = line
Caput : head = proximal end which enlarger for fitting the joint, probably connectedwith body/corpus by constricted area term as neck (collum)
Collum : neck
Condyl (condylus) : bone elevationwhich cylendrical form for fitting the joint.
Epicondylus : cantinuation of condyl which not make joint.
Trochlea : pulley form(katrol)for mass joint
Cavitasglenoidalis : low concavejoint(dangkal).
Cavitascotyloid (acetabulum) : concavejoint which is deep.
Facet : usually forsmall joint surface and it’s notso elevated their concave or convexsurface.
Fossa : concave/ curve
Fovea : concave/ curve
Sulcus : long depression like a canal.
Impressio : depression cause of pressure another organ.
Foramen : hole for passing blood vessels, nerves, etc.
canalis : long holelike a tube
Fissura : space/ space within bone.
Incissura : cracking bone.
Sinus : air spaces within the compact substance, this cavities term as sinuses, are lined with mucous membrane & they communicateindirectly with external air
- suture squamosa: between
temporal and parietal bones - sutura plana(harmonia): internasal suture
exp: symphysis pelvis , sternebrae.
1. articular surface
3. capsula synoviale
5. discus and meniscus
6. marginal cartilago (labrum
calcium phosphat 57,35%
calcium carbonat 3,85%
magnesium phosphat 2,05%
natrium carbonat& clorida 3,45%
it can make a new layer outside and inside of the bone