PAV-OSTEOLOGY. OSTEOLOGY. OSTEOLOGY : is a science which learn about bones and their relation Bones are connected each other term as : skeleton. Skeleton : is applied to the frame-work of hard structures which supports and protects the soft tissue of animals.
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OSTEOLOGY : is a science which learn about bones and their relation
Bones are connectedeachother term as: skeleton
- ectoderm : external layer skin & nerve
- endoderm: inner layer viscera
- mesoderm: between ecto & endoderm
muscles and bones.
Ossa Extremitas Cranialis et Caudalis
SKELETON VISCERALIS : consists of certain bones developed in the substance of some of the viscera or soft organ
Os. Vesali os Hyoideus
Os. Penis os Cordis
(1) Collumnar Vertebralis, composes of :
Cervicalis, Thoracalis, Lumbalis,
Sacralis and Coccygealis
(2) Ossa Costae, Sternum, Clavicula, Scapula,Coxae
(os Coxae, composes of: Ossa pubic, ilium and ischiadicum)
Extremitas Cranialis :
Ossa Humerus, Radius-Ulna, Carpal, Metacarpal, Phalangis/digitalis
Extremitas Caudalis :
Ossa Femuralis, Tibia-Fibula, Tarsal, Metatarsal, Phalangis/digitalis
cattle 191 – 193 bones
chicken 160 boness
human 206 bones (old), 270 (young)
This condition is depended by breed(ras) and age.
started by cartilage : cel2 mesenchym chondroblast chondrocyt (fit length) ossification.
Osteoblast : destroy bone layer in order to make the shape.
( from the middle of tissue )
(fron the lateral, the tissue change in order to fix bone layer)
Guinea pig 3PUNCTUM OSSIFICATION VERTEBRATA post natal
1. compact substance.
2. spongiosa substance
In the long bone have medullar cavity.
in the adult animals have 2 variation:
as red and yellow:
chemis: organic : inorganic 1:2
kalsium fosfat 57,35%
kalsium karbonat 3,85%
magnesium fosfat 2,05%
natrium karbonat& klorida 3,45%
Periosteum / endosteum:
has capability to make new bone layer
cartilage: its for elascity and pressure absorber joint between 2 bones.
Tendo, ligament: fixing tissue between bones or muscles.
Processus : bone elevation usually long
Tuberositas (tuber) :big protruded bone and round form, but it’s not make a joint.
Tuberculum: small protruded bone
Trochanter :its use for several protruded bone and its not make a joint.
Spina (processus spinosus) : high protruded bone, usually flat andsometimes sharp
Crista although then a part has change to be yellow (medulla ossium flava) :elevation of bone which sharp edge.
Linea : very small elevation = line
Caput : head = proximal end which enlarger for fitting the joint, probably connectedwith body/corpus by constricted area term as neck (collum)
Collum : neck
Condyl (condylus) : bone elevationwhich cylendrical form for fitting the joint.
Epicondylus : cantinuation of condyl which not make joint.
Trochlea although then a part has change to be yellow (medulla ossium flava) : pulley form(katrol)for mass joint
Cavitasglenoidalis : low concavejoint(dangkal).
Cavitascotyloid (acetabulum) : concavejoint which is deep.
Facet : usually forsmall joint surface and it’s notso elevated their concave or convexsurface.
Fossa : concave/ curve
Fovea : concave/ curve
Sulcus although then a part has change to be yellow (medulla ossium flava) : long depression like a canal.
Impressio : depression cause of pressure another organ.
Foramen : hole for passing blood vessels, nerves, etc.
canalis : long holelike a tube
Fissura : space/ space within bone.
Incissura : cracking bone.
Sinus : air spaces within the compact substance, this cavities term as sinuses, are lined with mucous membrane & they communicateindirectly with external air
- suture squamosa: between
temporal and parietal bones - sutura plana(harmonia): internasal suture
exp: symphysis pelvis , sternebrae.
1. articular surface
3. capsula synoviale
5. discus and meniscus
6. marginal cartilago (labrum
calcium phosphat 57,35%
calcium carbonat 3,85%
magnesium phosphat 2,05%
natrium carbonat& clorida 3,45%
it can make a new layer outside and inside of the bone