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L7: Nation-State Building in Italy. Homework : Consult unit schedule. Agenda Objective : To… Understand how the elements of “ brains, “ soul, ” and “ sword ” are part of the process of building nation-states.

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l7 nation state building in italy
L7: Nation-State Building in Italy
  • Homework:
  • Consult unit schedule

Agenda

Objective:

To…

  • Understand how the elements of “brains, “soul,”and “sword” are part of the process of building nation-states.
  • Understand how the elements of “brains, “soul,”and “sword” interact/play out in the process of building an Italian nation-state.

Schedule:

  • Opening activity
  • Italian Unification lecture and discussion
  • Writing a formula for Italian Unification
the process of building nation states
The Process of Building Nation-States
  • So far we have looked at movements to build nation-states in Latin America, France, and Germany.
  • Given these case studies, let’s pause and take stock for a moment, what are the characteristics/elements involved in the process of building nation-states? (Generate a list with your partner).
goal for today
Goal for Today
  • Understand how “brains,”“soul,” and “sword” interact/play out in the process of building an Italian nation-state.
slide6

Part Two: Understanding how “brains,”“soul,” and “sword” interact/play out in the process of building an Italian nation-state

call for italian unification 1800 1848 mazzini
Call for Italian Unification 1800-1848: Mazzini
  • In the mid 1800s, increasing calls for the creation of a unified Italian nation-state ruled by Italians themselves.
  • Movement called Risorgimento (resurgence)
  • Found expression in the writings of Joseph Mazzini.
call for italian unification 1800 1848 mazzini1
Call for Italian Unification 1800-1848: Mazzini
  • For Mazzini what is the purpose of unification?
  • What is the method he proposes for unification?
  • What ideologies are Mazzini’s views rooted in?
  • Do you think Mazzini represents the “brains,”“soul,” and/or “sword” element of the process of nation-state building in Italy?
call for italian unification 1800 1848 mazzini2
Call for Italian Unification 1800-1848: Mazzini
  • Mazzini inspires a series of uprisings in Sicily, Abruzzi, Tuscany, Lombardy-Venetia, and Rome.
  • They all fail.
1848 changes everything
1848 Changes Everything
  • The events of 1848 throughout Europe shift the thinking of some on the question of Italian Unification.
  • Think back to events in France and Germany, what are some of the

potential “lessons” that

figures in the Italian

Unification movement

might take from these

events?

italian unification 1848 1860 cavour
Italian Unification 1848-1860: Cavour
  • The lessons are not lost on the prime minister of Sardinia: Cavour.
  • Given the lesson’s learned, what attributes do you think Cavour’s plan for unification is going to have?
  • Who does Cavour resemble in his beliefs?
italian unification 1848 1860 cavour1
Italian Unification 1848-1860: Cavour
  • In 1859 Sardinia, aided by France, declares war on Austria (largest foreign ruler of the Italian states). This is the Austro-Sardinian War of 1859.
  • Things don’t go according

to plan…France, lacking

public support for the war,

makes peace with Austria

and abandons their

agreement with Cavour.

Cavour only obtains

Lombardy.

  • At the same time, revolutions in the style of Mazzini continued to break out. Various northern Italian states drove out their leaders and attached themselves to Sardinia.
  • Italian Unification had reached a half success as there was now northern Italian unification under the Kingdom of Sardinia.
italian unification 1848 1860
Italian Unification: 1848-1860
  • Do you think Cavour represents the “brains,”“soul,” and/or “sword” element of the process of nation-state building in Italy?
italian unification 1861 garibaldi
Italian Unification 1861: Garibaldi
  • Garibaldi was a member of Mazzini’s Young Italy movement.
  • But Garibaldi too was influenced by the lessons of 1848.
  • Began to believe in Cavour’s conservative strategy that Italy could only be unified under the Sardinian government, but that revolutionary violence could be used to facilitate this process.
italian unification 1861 garibaldi1
Italian Unification 1861: Garibaldi
  • In 1860, popular uprisings

in Sicily provided

Garibaldi with an

opportunity.

  • He gathered about 1000

volunteers, called the

Red Shirts, and launched

an armed siege of Sicily. The government of the Kingdom of the two Sicilies immediate collapsed.

  • Plebiscites held in the Two Sicilies and the Papal States (with the exception of Rome) all unanimously voted to join with the united northern Italian Kingdom, to create Italy.
  • In 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was formally proclaimed with Victor Emmanuel II as its King.
italian unification 1861 garibaldi2
Italian Unification 1861: Garibaldi
  • Do you think Garibaldi represents the “brains,”“soul,” and/or “sword” element of the process of nation-state building in Italy?
developing a formula for the nation state building process in italy
Developing a Formula for the Nation-State Building Process in Italy
  • At the beginning of class, we developed an understanding that the nation building process is characterized by some combination of “brains,”“soul,” and “sword.”
  • How did “brains,”“soul,” and “sword” interact to shape the process of building an Italian nation-state?
    • Formulate your response as an equation where “Italy” is your “Y” and “brains,”“soul,” and “sword” are your “Xs.”
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