support and transport in plants
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
SUPPORT AND TRANSPORT IN PLANTS

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 37

SUPPORT AND TRANSPORT IN PLANTS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 80 Views
  • Uploaded on

SUPPORT AND TRANSPORT IN PLANTS. ANATOMY OF DICOT PLANTS. The Root. Two types of root systems - tap root system - adventitious root system. Functions of the roots. They anchor the plant firmly to the ground. They absorb water and mineral salts. External Structure of Root Tip.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'SUPPORT AND TRANSPORT IN PLANTS' - donny


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
support and transport in plants

SUPPORT AND TRANSPORT IN PLANTS

ANATOMY OF DICOT PLANTS

the root
The Root
  • Two types of root systems

- tap root system

- adventitious root system

functions of the roots
Functions of the roots
  • They anchor the plant firmly to the ground.
  • They absorb water and mineral salts.
external structure of root tip
External Structure of Root Tip

Root cap is made up of parenchyma cells. It protects the inner layers of the root.

The growing point is made up of meristematic cells. Some of the new cells produced replace the parenchyma cells of the root cap which were damaged.

Region of elongation – the cells comes from the growing point which begin to elongate.

The root hair region has root hairs, which absorb water and mineral salts.

Internally the cells in this region begin to differentiate into epidermis, parenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem

Mature region has side roots and fully differentiated tissues.

functions of the various root tissues
Functions of the various root tissues
  • . The root hairs of the epidermis absorb water and mineral salts.
  • The parenchyma of the cortex stores starch and the intercellular spaces allow water and mineral salts to pass through
  • The passage cells of the endodermis direct water into the xylem of the stele.
  • The pericycle gives rise to side roots
  • The xylem transports water and mineral salts from the roots to the stem and leaves. It also provides strength to the plant.
  • The phloem transports manufactured food from the leaves to the roots.
  • The vascular cambium gives rise to additional xylem and phloem as the root grows in thickness
the stem
The Stem

Functions of the stem:

  • They hold the leaves in a favourable position to receive light for photosynthesis.
  • They hold the flowers in a favourable position for pollination.
  • Most stems contain chlorophyll and they therefore manufacture food by the process of photosynthesis.
  • They store food and water
  • They transport water and mineral salts from roots to leaves
  • They transport food from the leaves to the roots
functions of the various stem tissues
Functions of the various stem tissues
  • The cuticle reduces water loss through transpiration
  • The cuticle is transparent allowing light to pass through for photosynthesis.
  • The epidermis may have guard cells to allow gaseous exchange while at the same time reducing water loss through transpiration.
  • The hypodermis of sclerenchyma or collenchyma strengthens the stem and helps keep it upright.
  • The parenchyma of the cortex stores food.
  • The intercellular air spaces between the parenchyma cells allow for transport of water and gases.
  • The endodermal cells stores starch.
  • The sclerenchymafibres gives strength to the plant and help to keep it upright.
  • Xylem transports water and mineral salts from the roots to the leaves
  • Phloem transports manufactured food from the leaf to the roots
secondary growth of the stem
Secondary growth of the stem
  • Increase in thickness of the stem is called secondary growth or secondary thickness.

Secondary thickness takes place in 3 steps:

  • Formation of secondary xylem and secondary phloem
  • Formation of cork
  • Formation of lenticels
formation of secondary xylem and secondary phloem
Formation of secondary xylem and secondary phloem
  • Parenchyma cells between the vascular bundles begin to divide. This with vascular cambium forms a complete ring of cambium
  • Entire cambium divides to form secondary xylem on the inside and secondary phloem on the outside.
  • Every year a new ring of secondary xylem is formed. These are called the annual rings. (can tell the age of the tree by counting annual rings)
  • The xylem cells making up the older annual rings becomes clogged and are no longer able to transport water and mineral salts. They become heartwood.
formation of cork
Formation of Cork
  • Certain parenchyma cells in the cortex begin to divide and form cork cambium
  • The cork cambium divides to form cork cells on its outside.
  • The cork cells have suberin laid down on their cell walls.
formation of lenticles
Formation of Lenticles
  • In woody stems the stomata are blocked by the presence of cork cells
  • The epidermis of woody stems breaks up to form tiny pores called lenticles which allow gaseous exchange.
xylem
XYLEM
  • Xylem tissue is made up of four types of cells

- xylem vessels

- xylem tracheids

- xylem sclerenchyma

- xylem parenchyma

  • Xylem vessels and xylem tracheids are highly specialised cells.
  • Xylem vessels are dead cells. They are long, cylindrical cells.
  • Their cross walls are perforated or completely absent and form continuous tubes from roots to leaves.
  • Xylem vessels have thick walls made up of lignin.
  • Lignin is laid down in various patterns
  • Annular thickening ( lignin laid in circles)
  • Spiral thickening ( lignin laid in spiral)
  • Scalariform thickening (laid in ladder form)
  • Pitted thickening (laid in pits)
  • Xylem tracheids are similar to xylem vessels except that the ends are tapered and cross walls are always present
xylem vessels
Xylem Vessels

Pitted Thickening

Scalariform

Thickening

Annular thickening

Spiral

Thickening

Xylem Tracheids

adaptation of xylem to transport
Adaptation of xylem to transport
  • Cross walls are perforated or completely absent – this forms xylem roots forms continuous tubes with the xylem stems and leaves.
  • Xylem vessles have no living contents – allows the water to flow freely inside.
  • The walls of the xylem vessels and tracheids are not completely thickened – the unthickened portions and bordered pits allow water to move across the root and stem
  • Adaptation of xylem to provide strength
  • the vessels and tracheids are thick-walled – they have a secondary wall of lignin
  • the vessels and tracheids are round in cross-section – round structures give additional strength
phloem
Phloem
  • Phloem tissue is made up of four types of cells:
  • Sieve tubes
  • Companion cells
  • Phloem parenchyma
  • Phloem sclerenchyma
  • Sieve tubes and companion cells are highly specialised cells
  • Sieve tubes are living cells with long cylindrical cells.
  • Their cross walls are perforated to form sieve plates
  • They are thin walled cells
  • They contain strands of cytoplasm which run through the sieve plates from one cell to the next
  • Companion cells lie next to the sieve tubes – they are thin walled, with cross walls and has a well-defined nucleus
the function of phloem tissue
The function of phloem tissue
  • The sieve tubes transport manufactured food from the leaves to the all parts of the plant.
  • The companion cells probably control the activities of the sieve tubes
absorption and transport of water and mineral salts by plants
Absorption and Transport of water and mineral salts by plants
  • Water enters the root hairs of the epidermis of roots by osmosis

POINTS TO REMEMBER

  • THE SOIL WATER IS THE DILUTE SOLUTION
  • THE CELL SAP HAS CONCENTRATION SOLUTION BECAUSE OF HIGH CONCENTRATION OF SALTS.
  • THE CELL MEMBRANE AND TONOPLAST IS SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE

OSMOSIS: MOVEMENT OF WATER MOLECULES FROM HIGH

WATER POTENTIAL TO LOW WATER POTENTIAL

THROUGH SEMI PERMEABLE MEMBRANE.

forces responsible for the upward movement of water
Forces responsible for the upward movement of water
  • Transpirational pull
  • Root pressure
  • Capillarity
forces responsible for the upward movement of water31
Forces responsible for the upward movement of water

Transpirational Pull:

  • Water evaporates from leaves
  • Creates diffusion pressure gradient between outside air and xylem
  • Tension exists in the water column extending from the roots to the leaves
  • Adhesive and cohesive forces keep the column continuous
  • Thus water is continually being pulled upward as water evaporates from the leaves

Upward pull = transpirational pull

forces responsible for the upward movement of water32
Forces responsible for the upward movement of water

Root pressure

  • Cell sap of root hair always has low water potential when compared to soil water
  • Water enters root hair by osmosis
  • Continuous osmosis causes pressure forcing water a short distance up the stem

Capillarity

  • Spontaneous movement of water up narrow tubes because of adhesion and cohesion is called capillarity
  • Lumen of xylem vessels and tracheids are very narrow therefore capillarity takes place
  • Upward distance is very short
structural modifications of leaves to reduce water loss internal factors limiting transpiration
Structural modifications of leaves to reduce water loss(Internal factors limiting transpiration)
  • Sunken stomata:In some plants stomata may be sunken or small.
  • Thickened cuticle: A thick cuticle on the surface of leaves reduces the rate of transpiration.
  • Hair on leaves: the sheen r shine of the hairs of some leaves reflect sunlight and reduces transpiration. Hairs also trap water vapour, restricting water loss.
  • Shape, size and arrangement of leaves: The shape and size of leaves determine the total surface area exposed to the environment, and hence influence the rate of transpiration. The leaves of some plants are arranged in such manner that they shade each other or overlap each other. In this water loss is restricted
environmental factors affecting the rate of transpiration
Environmental factors affecting the rate of transpiration
  • Humidity:High humidity decreases transpiration rate
  • Wind:Increases evaporation and thus transpiration

increases. Wind removes the water vapour around leaf thus increasing water vapour pressure gradient.

  • Temperature:Increases evaporation and thus transpiration
  • Light: generally causes an increase in the rate of transpiration
slide35

Wilting: Loss of turgidity of the cells results in leaves and

Sometimes the stems, becoming limp, causing them to droop.

Then the plant is called wilting.

Guttation: Loss of liquid water through tiny pores, called

hydathodes on margin of leaf.

Guttation

Wilting Plant

slide36

Economic uses of plants related to their anatomy:

  • Paper
  • Clothing
  • Timber for furniture-making and building construction
  • Basket-making
  • Thatching, matting and broom-making
slide37

This powerpoint was kindly donated to

www.worldofteaching.com

http://www.worldofteaching.com

Is home to well over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This a free site. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching

ad