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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Kinematics ( 運動學) Primer' - donnan

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Contents

- General Properties of Transform
- 2D and 3D Rigid Body Transforms
- DOF (degree of freedom)
- Representation
- Computation
- Conversion
- …
- Transforms for Hierarchical Objects

Explain these concepts via 2D translation

Verify that the same holds for rotation, 3D, …

Kinematic Modeling- Two interpretations of transform
- “Global”:
- An operator that “displaces” a point (or set of points) to desired location
- “Local”:
- specify where objects are placed in WCS by moving the local frame

p

x

Ex: 2D translation (move point)The transform, as an operator, takes

p to p’, thus changing the coordinate

of p:

Tr(t) p = p’

p’

Tr(t)

y

p’

p

x’

x

Ex: 2D translation (move frame)The transform moves the xy-frame to

x’y’-frame and the point is placed

with the same local coordinate.

To determine the corresponding position of p’ in xy-frame:

Tr(t)

Transforms are usually not commutable

TaTb p TbTa p (in general)

Rigid body transform:

the ones preserving the shape

Two types:

rotation rot(n,q)

translation tr(t)

Properties of TransformRotation axis n passes thru origin

Rigid Body Transform

- transforming a point/object
- rot(n,q) p; tr(t) p
- not commutable
- rot(n,q) tr(t) p tr(t) rot(n,q) p
- two interpretations (local vs. global axes, see next pages)

Hierarchical Objects

- For modeling articulated objects
- Robots, mechanism, …
- Goals:
- Draw it
- Given the configuration, able to compute the (global) coordinate of every point on body

Configuration

Link 1: Box (6,1); bend 45 deg

Link 2: Box (8,1); bend 30 deg

Goals:

Draw it

find tip position

y

x

y

x

Ex: Two-Link Arm (2D)Rot(z,45)

Tr(0,6)

Rot(z,30)

Ex: Two-Link ArmTip Position:

T for link1:

Rot(z,45) Tr(0,6) Rot(z,30)

T for link2:

Rot(z,45)

y’”

y’

x”

x”’

x’

Rot(z”,30)

Tip pos:(0’”,8’”)

Tr(0,6’)

Rot(z,45)

Ex: Two-Link ArmThus, two views are equivalent

The latter might be easier to

visualize.

Rigid body transform only consists of

Tr(x,y)

Rot(z,q)

Computation:

3x3 matrix is sufficient to realize Tr and Rot

2D KinematicsConsists of two parts

3D rotation

3D translation

The same as 2D

3D rotation is more complicated than 2D rotation (restricted to z-axis)

Next, we will discuss the treatment for spatial (3D) rotation

3D KinematicsDOF (degree of freedom)

- … of a system of moving bodies is the number of independent variables required to specify the configuration
- … is closely related to kinematic representation
- (# of independent variables) = (# of total variables) ̶ (# of equality constraints)

A particle in

R2

R3

A rigid body in

R2

R3

DOF of …3

2

6

3

a line in R2

a line in R3

a plane in R3

2

4 (Plucker coordinates)

3

Euler angles

Axis-angle

3X3 rotation matrix

Unit quaternion

Learning Objectives

Representation (uniqueness)

Perform rotation

Composition

Interpolation

Conversion among representations

…

3D Rotation RepresentationsRoll, pitch, yaw

Gimbal lock: reduced DOF due to overlapping axes

Euler AnglesRef: http://www.fho-emden.de/~hoffmann/gimbal09082002.pdf

Axis-Angle Representation

- Rot(n,q)
- n: rotation axis (global)
- q: rotation angle (rad. or deg.)
- follow right-handed rule
- Rot(n,q)=Rot (-n,-q)
- Problem with null rotation: rot(n,0), any n
- Perform rotation
- Rodrigues formula (next page)
- Interpolation/Composition: poor
- Rot(n2,q2)Rot(n1,q1) =?= Rot(n3,q3)

Rodrigues Formula

r : unit vector (axis)

r

This is the “cross-product matrix”

rL v = r v

v

v’

v’=R v

References:

http://mesh.caltech.edu/ee148/notes/rotations.pdf

http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~ug/slide/pipeline/assignments/as5/rotation.html

Composition: trivial

orthogonalization might be required due to FP errors

Interpolation: ?

Rotation Matrix (cont)Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization

- If 3x3 rotation matrix no longer orthonormal, metric properties might change!

Verify!

Unit Quaternion

- Define unit quaternion as follows to represent rotation
- Example
- Rot(z,90°)
- q and –q represent the same rotation
- Null rotation: q = [1,0,0,0]

Why “unit”?

DOF point of view!

Unit Quaternion (cont)

- Perform Rotation
- Composition
- Interpolation
- Linear
- Spherical linear (slerp, more later)

Matrix Conversion (cont)

Find largest qi2; solve the rest

r

Spherical Linear Interpolationunit sphere in R4

The computed rotation quaternion rotates about a fixed axis at constant speed

References:

http://www.gamedev.net/reference/articles/article1095.asp

http://www.diku.dk/research-groups/image/teaching/Studentprojects/Quaternion/

http://www.sjbrown.co.uk/quaternions.html

http://www.theory.org/software/qfa/writeup/node12.html

Spatial Displacement

- Any displacement can be decomposed into a rotation followed by a translation
- Matrix
- Quaternion

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