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Ion Recombination Correction Factors (P ion ) for Varian TrueBeam High Dose Rate Therapy Beams Stephen F. Kry*, Richard Popple†, Andrea Molineu*, David S. Followill* *The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX †The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

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Ion Recombination Correction Factors (Pion) for Varian TrueBeam High Dose Rate Therapy Beams Stephen F. Kry*, Richard Popple†, Andrea Molineu*, David S. Followill*

*The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX †The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL

Results

Measured Pion values for FF and FFF photon and electron beams are shown in Tables 1-4.

Measured values of Pion were highly consistent over multiple machines. Pion varied with depth (because of differences in dose per pulse); the depth dependence could require correction when high accuracy is needed. Pion also varied with ion chamber (because of different chamber designs).

Consistent with the increased dose per pulse, Pion was higher for FFF beams than for flattening filter beams. However, for all beams, measurement locations, and chambers examined, Pion never exceeded 1.018.

Additionally, Pion was always within 0.3% of the recombination calculated from the Jaffé plots (Figure 1), and was usually within 0.1-0.2%. This implies that the 2-voltage technique is accurately describing the recombination in the ion chamber.

Introduction

Ion recombination is approximately corrected for in the Task-Group-51 protocol by Pion, which is calculated by a two-voltage measurement technique:

This measurement approach may be a poor estimate of the true recombination, particularly if Pion is large (greater than 1.05). This may occur in cases with a high instantaneous dose rate, i.e., a high dose per pulse for modern linacs.

Concern exists that flattening filter free (FFF) beams, which have a much higher dose per pulse than traditional beams, may render the two-voltage measurement technique inappropriate for accurate ion chamber dose measurement.

Therefore, in this study we measured Pion for traditional flattened beams as well as high-dose-rate FFF beams with a variety of Farmer-type chambers to determine if the existing two-voltage method is appropriate for FFF beams.

TABLE 3. Measured Pion values at 300 V for FFF beams at a depth of 10 cm in water and at dmax with three ion chambers.

TABLE 4. Measured Pion values at 300 V for high-dose-rate (1000 MU/min) electron beams at two depths in water using an Exradin A-12 chamber.

TABLE 1. Pion values (at 300 V) for conventional flattened photon beams of different energies measured on several Varian 21 EX accelerators. The mean Pion and the maximum and minimum of the measurements are shown. Measurements were taken at a depth of 10 cm with an Exradin A-12 chamber.

Figure 1. The inverse of the collected charge versus the inverse of the applied voltage for the 6 MV FFF beam and the 10 MV FFF beam for three ion chambers examined in this study (PTW, Exradin, and NEL). A linear best-fit line through the data is included for each series.

  • Methods
  • Pion was measured for flattened beams of 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV and for FFF beams of 6 and 10 MV. The values for the FFF beams were verified with 1/V versus 1/Q curves (Jaffé plots).
  • Pion was also measured for electron beams of 6, 12, 16, 18, and 20 MeV on a traditional accelerator, as well as on the high dose rate Varian TrueBeam accelerator.
  • The measurements were made at a range of depths and with PTW, NEL, and Exradin Farmer-type chambers.

Conclusions

While Ion recombination is higher in high dose-per pulse FFF photon beams, ion recombination can nevertheless be adequately accounted for using the traditional 2-voltage technique for determining Pion.

TABLE 2. Measured Pion values (at 300 V) for conventional electron beams at dref in water measured on several accelerators with an Exradin A-12 chamber.

Acknowledgements

Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 awarded by NCI, DHHS

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