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1. Augmented Feedback. Chapter 15. 1. Feedback types. After performance… Sensory feedback (Task-intrinsic) Visual Proprioceptive Auditory Tactile Augmented feedback (Task-extrinsic) Knowledge of results (KR) : information about the outcome

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feedback types


Feedback types
  • After performance…
    • Sensory feedback (Task-intrinsic)
      • Visual
      • Proprioceptive
      • Auditory
      • Tactile
    • Augmented feedback (Task-extrinsic)
      • Knowledge of results (KR): information about the outcome
      • Knowledge of performance (KP): information about the movement
relative importance of feedback


Relative importance of feedback
  • Sometimes it’s essential for learning
    • Critical feedback needed for learning is not “available” or not interpretable for whatever reason
      • Unseen target
      • Disease/disability - loss of sensation
      • Task-intrinsic feedback is there, but can’t be understood (timing)
relative importance of feedback1


Relative importance of feedback
  • Sometimes it may not be needed
    • Sensory feedback available, understood, and usable
    • Duplicating information that is already available
      • E.g. Saying “you hit it” when the person can clearly see they did (not only redundant, but annoying)
relative importance of feedback2


Relative importance of feedback
  • Sometimes it may enhance learning
    • They can learn without it, but it speeds up learning
      • Complex skills requiring new patterns of multi-limb coordination
      • Aids the search through the “perceptual-motor workspace” (directs attention, aids in cue usage and so on)
        • E.g. golf shots, most sports skills
        • We’ll discuss this more towards the end of this slide set
relative importance of feedback3


Relative importance of feedback
  • It may even make things worse
    • Feedback after every trial (guidance hypothesis, see later)
    • Concurrent feedback (but again see later)
      • In both cases, the idea is that there’s an inappropriate amount of attention paid to the augmented feedback
kr kp the lab the real world


KR & KP – the lab & the “real world”
  • Teachers & coaches use KP almost exclusively
  • Motor learning research has been founded mostly on KR
    • Problem (generalization)?
    • Maybe – needs to be borne in mind for the next few slides
the small simple paradigm


The “small & simple” paradigm
  • Principle 1: Feedback must be prescriptive for folk to learn from it, so we need to study it in such situations
  • Principle 2: the task must be simple enough that folk can learn it in the time available, so that we can say something about learning
    • The “small and simple” paradigm met both these objectives by:
      • Using simple tasks that only required a small amount of practice to learn
      • Using tasks where feedback was essential to learning (so feedback was prescriptive), and examining how different doses of feedback affected learning
the small simple paradigm1


The “small & simple” paradigm
  • Feedback is prescriptive: provides guidance towards correct performance
the small simple paradigm2



The “small & simple” paradigm
  • The guidance hypothesis…why does this happen?