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Student Support Coursework Impacting Student Success in Developmental Math. Suzonne H. Crockett Lamar State College - Orange Maureen L. Selman Leander ISD Susan Troncoso Skidmore, Ph. D. Sam Houston State University . National Association for Developmental Education Dallas, TX

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Student Support Coursework Impacting Student Success in Developmental Math

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Student support coursework impacting student success in developmental math

Student Support Coursework Impacting Student Success in Developmental Math

Suzonne H. Crockett

Lamar State College - Orange

Maureen L. Selman

Leander ISD

Susan Troncoso Skidmore, Ph. D.

Sam Houston State University

National Association for Developmental Education

Dallas, TX

March 7, 2014



  • Setting the Stage

  • Literature

  • Results

  • Educational Significance: So What?

  • Discussion: What Does this Mean for YOU?

Setting the stage

Setting the Stage



  • An open-admission, lower-division state institution of higher education within the Texas State University System.

  • Core Values :To foster a collaborative environment of integrity and accountability

    • Excellence: We endeavor to achieve quality results.

    • Diversity: We celebrate diversity in ideas, people, and culture, and encourage a spirit of inclusiveness.

    • Community: We demonstrate genuine concern for our students, faculty, staff, and the region that we serve.

    • Student Success: We encourage and celebrate student achievement.

Degrees certificates and programs

Degrees, Certificates, and Programs

  • Degrees, certificates, and programs offered:

    • Accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges to award the associate of arts, associate of science, associate of applied science degrees, and certificates of completion.

    • Texas Education Agency approval for Veteran Training

    • Texas Board of Vocational Nurse Examiners and Texas Board of Nurse Examiners for Vocational Nursing and Upward Mobility Nursing programs

Degrees certificates and programs continued

Degrees, Certificates, and Programs continued

  • American Society of Health-System Pharmacists for the Pharmacy Technician Training program

  • National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences for the Medical Laboratory Technology program

  • American Dental Association for the Dental Assisting program

  • Texas Department of Health for theEmergency Medical Services program

School mission statement

School Mission Statement

a. to provide academic transfer and associate degree programs to prepare students for senior colleges and universities;

b. to provide technical certificate and associate degree programs to prepare students for employment;

c. to provide developmental programs for students not ready for college-level work;

d. to provide continuing education and customized training programs for those pursuing areas of personal interest or upgrading employment skills; and

e. to provide community service activities that promote economic development and cultural awareness.

Faculty characteristics

Faculty Characteristics

Note: N = 117.

Students characteristics

Students Characteristics

  • First Time in College Spring (6%) Fall (15%)

  • Enrollment Status Full-time (62%) Part-time (38%)

  • GenderWomen (73%) Men (27%)

  • Ethnicity African American (20%) Caucasian (75%) Hispanic (3%) Other (3%)

Program requirements

Program Requirements

  • Student Support Coursework

    • STSK 1200 “College Success” is required for all first-time freshman students.

    • A first-time student is one who has not earned any college credit since graduating from high school or completing the GED.

  • DevelopmentalMath

  • All students subject to the requirements of the Texas Success Initiative (TSI) must take the Texas Higher Education Assessment (THEA), Compass, or the ASSET test.

  • Students must present scores to register for classes unless otherwise exempt, or are majoring in programs of less than 43 credit hours.

Student success course

Student Success Course

  • The overall goal of the course known as CSI is simply to transform the mindset of new students from that of high school credit collection to a mindset of developing transferrable job knowledge and skills that will lead to continued and sustained success in the workplace as well as life in general.

    • Examine factors that underlie learning, success, and personal development in higher education.

    • Topics include strategic learning, self regulation, goal setting, motivation, and educational and career planning.

    • Techniques such as time management, listening and note taking, text marketing, preparing for examinations, and utilizing learning resources .

What does the literature say

What Does the Literature Say?

Student support coursework impacting student success in developmental math


  • Relationship between course enrollment and age groups(Walker & Plata, 2000)

    • more than the expected number of older students and fewerthan the expected number of younger students enrolled in fundamental math.

    • older students enrolled in elementary algebra at a lower rate than expected

    • statistically significantly more older students were placed into fundamentals of math



  • Relationship between gender and success in college mathematics(Hagedorn, Siadat, Fogel, Nora, & Pascarella, 1999)

    • males outperform females in geometry and measurement

    • females outperform males in numbers and operations

    • overrepresentation of females in college remedial mathematics courses

    • women are not taking the type of mathematics courses in high school to allow them to take college-level mathematics – they begin college at a disadvantage



  • Relationship between ethnicity and the benefits of remediation in mathematics (Bahr, 2010)

    • Black and Hispanic students do not benefit as much from remediation as do Whites

    • prior work suggests that the rewards of remedial math programs are not shared equally by all racial groups

    • Blacks and Hispanics face significant disadvantages in the likelihood of successful remediation

    • racial disparities in successful remediation originate from entry level math skills and performance in first math

Other factors

Other Factors

  • Community college experiences as described by men of color (Gardenhire-Crooks, Collado, Martin, & Castro, 2010)

    • men encountered low expectations and stereotypes based on race and ethnicity in high school

    • time spent in workforce or military service before college

    • motivation to attend college to better provide for families and become a role model

    • racial prejudice

    • low societal expectations

    • initial experiences on campus

    • relationships with faculty and peers

    • time available for study

    • money – men preferred to pay without financial assistance

    • asking for help

Why a study skills course

Why a Study Skills Course?

  • Facilitating the acquisition of study habits is especially important for remedial-level students

  • It is critical to identify points of intervention and the racial equity of remediation

  • A study kills course can serve as a target intervention for low performers in first math

  • Data gathered from study skills programs can provide a basis for additional research that is needed on students who drop out of the developmental sequence, but that persist in college

  • The provision of a study skills course can expand academic advising for those who face skill deficiencies

  • Assessment of the effectiveness of study skills programs can increase student success for older and non-White students (Gardenhire-Crooks, Collado, Martin, & Castro, 2010)

Study results

Study Results

Characteristics of students

Characteristics of Students

  • 65% Female

  • 68% White

  • Age: 26(SD = 9)

  • = 2.4 (SD = 1.6)

Preliminary look all students

Preliminary Look – All Students

A different look

A Different Look

Apples to apples comparison

Apples to Apples Comparison?

Evidence of apples to oranges

Evidence of Apples to Oranges

  • A statistically significantly greater number of men (55% of the men versus 40% of the women) took the study skills course, χ2(1) = 6.24, p = .01.

  • A greater number of White students (46% of the White students versus 42% of the non-White students) took the study skills course. The result was not statistically significant, χ2(1) = 0.49, p = .48.

Comparison by gender

Comparison by Gender

Comparison by ethnicity

Comparison by Ethnicity

Age by grade interaction

Age by Grade Interaction?

Did not take course: rage.grade= .088, p = .246; Took course: rage.grade= -.140, p = .095

So what

So What?

  • Please state some general conclusions of the success course…is it working? Is it not? What would you do with the data provided?

What does this mean for you

What Does this Mean for You?

Questions comments

Questions? Comments?



Bahr, P. R. (2010). Preparing the underprepared: An analysis of racial disparities in post-secondary mathematics remediation. The Journal of Higher Education, 81, 209-237. doi:10.1353/jhe.0.0086

Gardenhire-Crooks, A., Collado, H., Martin, K., Castro, A., MDRC, & Achieving the Dream, I. c. (2010). Terms of Engagement: Men of Color Discuss Their Experiences in Community College. Md

Hagedorn, L. S., Siadat, M. V., Fogel, S. F., Nora, A., & Pascarella, E. T. (1999). Success in college mathematics: Comparisons between remedial and nonremedialfirst-year college students. Research in Higher Education, 40, 261-284. doi: 10.1023/A:1018794916011

Walker, W., & Maximino, P. (2000). Race/gender/age differences in college mathematics students. Journal of Developmental Education, 23, 24-32.

Waycaster, P. (2004). The best predictors of success in developmental mathematics courses. Inquiry, 9, 1-8.

Wolfe, J. D., (2012). Success and persistence of developmental mathematics students based on age and ethnicity. Community College Enterprise, 18,39-54.

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