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Total Dose. Recombination, Transport, and Trapping of Carries. Current Leakage. Threshold Voltage Shift. From Harris. JPL Total Dose Facility. GSFC Total Dose Facility. TID Dynamic Bias Board w/ Shield. Example TID Static Bias Board Supports In Situ Testing. MIL-Std-883 Method 1019.

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Tid dynamic bias board w shield
TID Dynamic BiasBoard w/ Shield


Example tid static bias board supports in situ testing
Example TID Static Bias BoardSupports In Situ Testing



Mil std 883 method 1019 5
MIL-Std-883 Method 1019.5

Annealing allowed for parametric failures; not for functional failures.

1019.5 also allows for low dose rate testing.



Second generation system overview

Lab Instrument 1

Lab Instrument 2

Lab Instrument 3

Lab Instrument 4

Second Generation System - Overview

WWW

TID Chamber

Building

TID Chamber

DUT

“K-labs”

GPIB

GSFC

network

“rk” Server

“Stupid” PC

Test Control PC


Stupid user interface and capabilities
“Stupid” - User Interface and Capabilities

  • Windows 95-based user-friendly Interface

  • Runs Strip-chart of all Voltages and Currents

  • Executes remote commands

  • Monitors chamber conditions

  • “Stupid” can be configured to control various lab instruments over HPIB

    • Power Supply

    • Signal Generator

    • Multimeter

    • Digital Oscilloscope



Test control pc
Test Control PC

  • Can be located anywhere on GSFC computer network

  • Issues commands for “Stupid” at selected time intervals (or at operator’s discretion) by uploading a command file to “Stupid” PC.

  • Commands may include

    • “dump” strip-chart data

    • send a number of pulses to DUT

    • measure DUT output voltage

    • capture and digitize a waveform, etc.

  • Downloads requested data from “Stupid”

  • Creates charts and text data files for real-time test monitoring and web posting and post-test analyses.


Charts and raw data posted on klabs org web site
Charts and Raw Data Posted on “klabs.org” Web Site


In situ functional testing
In Situ Functional Testing

  • Traditional approach for antifuse-based FPGAs relies exclusively on bias current monitoring

  • Earlier families of Actel FPGAs (Act1, Act2, Act3) usually show ICC increasing exponentially to relatively high levels (>100 mA) before any irregularities (i.e. high current spikes) are observed; such “spikes” are usually a reliable indication of a functional failure

  • Initial testing of devices from SX family showed presence of “suspicious” small jumps in ICC current at relatively low current levels ( 10 to 50 mA)


In situ functional testing example 1
In Situ Functional Testing Example 1

  • Actel antifuse-based FPGA device (RT54SX16)

  • Traditional test configuration (ICC strip-chart) is expanded to include in situ short functional test

    • Signal Generator is utilized to send stimulus signal(s) to the DUT

    • Output Voltage(s) are measured by Multimeter

    • The sequence is executed automatically at programmed time intervals and/or manually as desired by experimenters; functional test results are posted on the web site for convenient monitoring along with ICC strip-chart data

  • The test, and other subsequent tests of SX family devices, showed that the first small jump in the ICC level usually occurs immediately the functional failure of a DUT


Actel sx family device in situ functional failure
Actel SX Family Device in situ Functional Failure

Functional failure occurred at ~15mA;

followed by immediate short current spike


In situ functional testing example 2
In Situ Functional Testing Example 2

  • Two Actel SX family devices (same lot, dose rate) irradiated simultaneously.

    • S/N LAN3403 configured traditionally (static, basic functional test once per hour) - “Static” configuration

    • S/N LAN3404 is clocked continuously at 1kHz -“Dynamic” configuration

  • Dynamic device fails at ~8% lower total accumulated dose level than static device

“Dynamic” device failure

“Static” device failure


Parametric in situ testing example 1
Parametric In Situ Testing Example 1

  • Flash-based FPGA device (Actel A500K050)

  • Initial testing involved standard elements

    • ICC monitoring

    • In situ basic functional test

  • Post-irradiation parametric testing showed significant increase in Propagation Delay (tPD)

  • Consequently, in situ measurement of tPD was added to the test configuration

    • Signal Generator supplies input pulse for DUT

    • Waveforms are captured by Digitizing Oscilloscope and tPD is measured


In situ measurement of propagation delay
In Situ measurement of Propagation Delay

Real-time Digitized Input and Output Waveforms

Before irradiation : tPD = 135ns

After accumulating 90 krad : tPD = 260ns


Compiled t pd measurement data
Compiled tPD Measurement Data


Parametric in situ testing example 2
Parametric In Situ Testing Example 2

  • Low Voltage Dropout Regulator (LM2931CT)

  • DUT was irradiated at nominal supply voltage (5 V)

  • Output Voltage strip-charted

  • In situ parametric testing:

    • Input Voltage sweep (from 6 V to 3 V) performed

    • Output Voltage measured and recorded for each sweep



Typical tid run
Typical TID Run Points during the Test


Tid run extended
TID Run - Extended Points during the Test


Tid run runaway
TID Run - Runaway Points during the Test


Charge pump and isolation fets

Isolation Device Points during the Test

Input

Charge

Pump

Input Buffer

Charge Pump andIsolation FETs

from Wang, et. al.


I cc transient peak current
I Points during the TestCC Transient - Peak Current


I cc transient charge
I Points during the TestCC Transient - Charge


I cc transient trigger voltage
I Points during the TestCC Transient - Trigger Voltage


I cc transient pulse width
I Points during the TestCC Transient - Pulse Width


I cc transient new part
I Points during the TestCC Transient - “New” Part

A1280A, 1 V/DIV, 100 mA/DIV


I cc transient 6 krad si
I Points during the TestCC Transient - 6 krad (Si)

A1280A, 1 V/DIV, 100 mA/DIV


I cc transient post anneal
I Points during the TestCC Transient - Post Anneal

A1280A, 1 V/DIV, 100 mA/DIV


Xqvr300 transient current
XQVR300 Transient Current Points during the Test

Voltage and current measurement for SN #42 before irradiation. The measurement is taken with oscilloscope during power-up with the 2 ms-ramp. The current peak observed during the ramp-up of the voltage is according to specification.


Xqvr300 transient current1
XQVR300 Transient Current Points during the Test

Voltage and current measurement for SN #42 after the 1st irradiation step (25 krad). The measurement is taken with oscilloscope during power-up with the 2 ms-ramp. The current peak has decreased from the pre-irradiation measurement.


Xqvr300 transient current2
XQVR300 Transient Current Points during the Test

Voltage and current measurement for SN #42 after the 2nd irradiation (45 krad). The measurements are taken with oscilloscope during power-with the 2 ms-ramp


Xqvr300 transient current 4
XQVR300 Transient Current (4) Points during the Test

Voltage and current measurement for SN #42 after the 2nd irradiation (45 krad). The measurements are taken with oscilloscope during power-with the 4 ms-ramp. The over current protection circuit turns off the power (A). By increasing the rise time the device used less current in the power-up phase and the power-up succeeded. [Note, the 4 ms ramp uses a capacitor to slow the power supply's transition time.]


Xqvr300 transient current 5
XQVR300 Transient Current (5) Points during the Test

Voltage and current measurement for SN #42 after the 3rd irradiation step (75 krad). The measurement is taken with oscilloscope during power-up with the 4 ms-ramp. Both with the 2 ms- and 4 ms ramp the power-up failed. The over current protection circuit for SN #42 is slightly slower than for SN #41. When reaching the maximum current (2.5 A) it takes some microseconds before the power is turned off. [Note, the 4 ms ramp uses a capacitor to slow the power supply's transition time.]


Xqvr300 transient current 6
XQVR300 Transient Current (6) Points during the Test

Voltage and current measurement for SN #42 after the last irradiation step (95 krad). The measurement is taken with oscilloscope during power-up with the 2 ms-ramp. Both with the 2 ms- and 4 ms ramp the power-up failed. The over current protection circuit for SN #42 is slightly slower than for SN #41. When reaching the maximum current (2.5 A) it takes some microseconds before the power is turned off.


Flash based fpga

FLASH Based FPGA Points during the Test


Total ionizing dose test results
Total Ionizing Dose Test Results Points during the Test


Total dose effects on flash switch

V Points during the TestCC

Ionizing Radiation

Control Gate

ONO

Tunnel Oxide

Floating Gate

Source

Drain

Data Path

Total Dose Effects on FLASH Switch

  • Ionizing radiation discharge the floating gate

    • Increase ON-state NMOS transistor resistance, increase RC delay in the data path

    • Increase OFF-state NMOS sub-threshold leakage, increase ICC


Total dose effects on flash switch1

T Points during the Test1

T2

T3

T = T1 · T2 · T3

Total Dose Effects on FLASH Switch

Tunnel

Oxide

Radiation-Induced

Traps

  • Radiation-Induced Leakage Current (RILC) in tunnel oxide

    • Similar to Stress-Induced Leakage Current (SILC) cause discharge of the floating gate

    • Charge retention cause long term reliability issue

Floating

Gate

Silicon


Low dose rate test and anneal a1280a
Low Dose Rate Test and Points during the TestAnneal - A1280A

from chiba


Low dose rate test and anneal
Low Dose Rate Test and Anneal Points during the Test


Low dose rate test and anneal1
Low Dose Rate Test and Anneal Points during the Test


In situ functional testing1
In Situ Functional Testing Points during the Test

Note: Some cases showed

failure at less than 20 mA current

with current jumps of 6-8 mA.


In situ performance monitoring lvdo regulator
In Situ Performance Monitoring Points during the TestLVDO Regulator


Tid capability vs foundry
TID Capability vs. Foundry Points during the Test


Tid vs product lifetime
TID vs. Product Lifetime Points during the Test

Device

Technology

(µm)

Total Dose

Lifetime

A1020

2.0

> 100

krad(

Si)

1988-92

A1020A

1.2

~ 100

krad(

Si)*

1991-95

A1020B

1.0/0.9

< 20

krad(

Si)

since '93

A1020DX

0.5

N/A

-

* Variable -some lots higher, some lower

from Wang, et. al.


Tid capability vs feature size
TID Capability vs. Feature Size Points during the Test


Tid capability vs feature size1
TID Capability vs. Feature Size Points during the Test


Tid capability vs feature size2
TID Capability vs. Feature Size Points during the Test


Process mods 0 6 m
Process Mods - 0.6 Points during the Testm


Process mods 0 25 m
Process Mods - 0.25 Points during the Testm


Post tid testing
Post TID Testing Points during the Test

Div by 2 Output

Input Clock

Failure is intermittent. Scope was set to trigger on glitch.


Post tid testing1
Post TID Testing Points during the Test

Div by 2 Output

Input Clock

Note: Some devices will fail only in localized portions.

High fault coverage is needed.


Dose depth curves
Dose Depth Curves Points during the Test


Shield of 46 mev protons
Shield of 46 MeV Protons Points during the Test


Shielding effectiveness
Shielding Effectiveness Points during the Test


Fram memory functionality loss during total dose test
FRAM Memory Functionality Loss During Total Dose Test Points during the Test

In situ static current measurements of two serial and one parallel FRAM device types. This initial study showed that Rohm (serial) and Ramtron research fab (parallel) devices could withstand moderate doses without significant leakage currents. Post irradiation testing of the FM1608 showed that all devices catastrophically failed. Annealling did not help. In situ functional tests or a step irradiation method are needed for determination of the functional limit. The base CMOS process is not the limiting factor for the FM1608.


Xilinx fpgas and proms
Xilinx FPGAs and PROMs Points during the Test

  • 0.35µM Technology

    • TID evaluation performed on XQR4036XL

    • device parametric shifts were negligible

    • field oxide leakage determined TID of 60 krad (Si)

    • device fully functional at end of dose

    • 100 °C anneal fully restored device

    • room temp anneal showed no rebound


Tid testing results
TID Testing Results Points during the Test

  • 0.25µM Technology

    • TID evaluation performed on XQVR300 (Virtex)

    • parametric shifts were negligible to 100 krad (Si)

    • no leakage at trench isolation to 100 krad (Si)

    • device fully functional at end of dose

    • slow increase in Tilo and other timings

    • 100 °C anneal fully restored device

    • room temp anneal showed no rebound

    • no dose-rate effect over 4 orders of magnitude



Tid testing results1
TID Testing Results Points during the Test

  • 0.18 µM Technology

    • TID evaluation performed on XQVR300E

    • parametric shifts were negligible to > 80 krad (Si)

    • no leakage at trench isolation to > 80 krad (Si)

    • device fully functional at end of dose

    • slow increase in Tilo and other timings

    • 100 °C anneal fully restored device

    • room temp anneal showed no rebound


Total Ionizing Dose Effect on 0.18 µm Technology Points during the Test

Trench Isolation


Tid testing results2
TID Testing Results Points during the Test

  • 0.60 µm OTP PROM Technology

    • TID evaluation performed on XQR1701L

    • device parametric shifts affected decoder speed

    • field oxide leakage determined TID of 60 krad (Si)

    • device fully functional at end of dose

    • no data loss/gain as a result of TID

    • 100 °C anneal fully restored device

    • room temp anneal showed no rebound


Tid testing results3
TID Testing Results Points during the Test

  • 0.35 µm ISP PROM Technology

    • TID evaluation performed on XQ1804 (XQR1804 will be tested in October, 2000)

    • device parametric shifts affected decoder function

    • no field oxide leakage to 60 krad (Si)

    • device fully functional at 50 krad (Si)

    • no data loss/gain in flash cells as a result of TID

    • 100 °C anneal fully restored device

    • room temp anneal showed no rebound


Xilinx PROM Response to TID Points during the Test


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