A basic study of human lineage and the differences between modern humans and other similar primates
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A basic study of human lineage and the differences between modern humans and other similar primates . History Trek: Human Evolution. By, Connor Maynes.

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A basic study of human lineage and the differences between modern humans and other similar primates

A basic study of human lineage and the differences between modern humans and other similar primates

History Trek: Human Evolution

By, Connor Maynes

"Human Evolution - New Scientist." Science News and Science Jobs from New Scientist - New Scientist. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.newscientist.com/topic/human-evolution>.

Human Evolution Spoof


History trek human evolution

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.macroevolution.net/images/human-evolution-timeline-500-347-25.jpg>.


History trek human evolution

1. Primate physiological similaritiesOpposable thumbs and fingers Nails instead of clawsLong fingersShoulder and hip joints allow a wide range of motion2. Eyes are directed forward Judge accurate distancesSee three-dimensional images3. Elaborate color visionCan distinguish between various objects4. Abnormally large brains for bodies Allowing primates to interact in social groups and solve problems5. Elaborate body language and vocal sounds6. Generally one offspring at a timeExtended care to offspring7. Primate canine and premolar teeth are significantly larger8. Human and Chimpanzee genomes are more than 98% similar

Similarities and differences between humans and other primates

"The Impact of Natural Selection on the Future of Humanity." Metapsychology. 31 May 2011. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=6101&cn=167>.


Similarities and differences between humans and other primates continued

Similarities and Differences Between Humans and other Primates Continued

Chimpanzee vs. Human Protein Differences

  • DNA Sequence Comparisons

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://i38.tinypic.com/5ydpbb.jpg>.


Sahelanthropus tchadensis

Sahelanthropustchadensis

  • Lived between 7 to 6 MYA

  • Lived in western Africa

  • Chimpanzee-like brain, had similar canine teeth to those of early humans, walked upright

  • Walking upright may have helped this species to survive in the diverse habitats where it lived (woodlands and grasslands)

Templeton, Alan R. "Genetics And Recent Human Evolution." Evolution 61.7 (2007): 1507-519. Print.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Orrorin tugenensis

OrrorinTugenensis

  • Lived between 6.2 to 5.8 MYA

  • Lived in Eastern Africa (central Kenya)

  • Walked upright, other features are apelike- curved finger bones for strong grasping for moving through trees, and apelike canine and premolar teeth

  • Large teeth would have allowed it to eat tough food, and exhibit dominance to others. While walking upright while retaining the ability to climb trees would have been helpful in an ever-changing environment

"Human Evolution - New Scientist." Science News and Science Jobs from New Scientist - New Scientist. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.newscientist.com/topic/human-evolution>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Ardipithecus kadabba

ArdipithecusKadabba

  • Lived between 5.8 to 5.2 MYA

  • Lived in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia)

  • lived in more closed and wooded areas

  • Living in these closed and wooded areas meant that this species spent most of its time in the trees and was probably quite powerful. Meaning that life was based upon physical fitness.

Templeton, Alan R. "Genetics And Recent Human Evolution." Evolution 61.7 (2007): 1507-519. Print.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Ardipithecus ramidus

ArdipithecusRamidus

  • Lived about 4.4 MYA

  • Lived in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia)

  • Walked upright, opposable toes allowed this species to climb trees

  • This species had the ability to climb trees, but also walk as well which allowed it to live in both habitats.

"Human Evolution." A Relationship Between Evolution, Genetics, Morality, Ethics, Psychology, Education, and Culture. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.onelife.com/evolve/manev.html>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Australopithecus anamensis

Australopithecus Anamensis

  • Lived between 4.2 to 3.9 MYA

  • Lived in Eastern Africa (Kenya and Ethiopia)

  • Walked upright, bipedal, lived near rivers in forests

  • Could walk upright and still climb trees and living near rivers allowed this species to begin to form societies as groups would live around rivers.

"Human Evolution - New Scientist." Science News and Science Jobs from New Scientist - New Scientist. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.newscientist.com/topic/human-evolution>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Australopithecus afarensis

Australopithecus Afarensis

  • Lived between 3.85 to 2.95 MYA

  • Lived in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania)

  • A. Afarensis had apelike proportions of the face and braincase. This species also had strong arms with curved fingers adapted for climbing trees. Also had small canine teeth and bipedal walking on arched feet.

  • The amount of forest, woodland, and grassland changed as the climate changed between wet and dry between 3.37 to 2.95 MYA.

    • As the climate changes brain function increases so that species may be intelligent enough to understand new ways of living and how to survive and work together.

"Human Evolution." A Relationship Between Evolution, Genetics, Morality, Ethics, Psychology, Education, and Culture. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.onelife.com/evolve/manev.html>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


First major achievement of humans

First Major Achievement of Humans

  • By 2.6 MYA tools were simple stone flakes and cores

"Human Evolution Animation. Video." Funny Videos, Funny Pictures, Flash Games, Jokes. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.ebaumsworld.com/video/watch/735440/>.


Australopithecus africanus

Australopithecus Africanus

  • Lived 3.3 to 2.1 MYA

  • Lived in South Africa

  • Mostly vegetarian and with a diet similar to modern chimpanzees consisting of fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and eggs. Their diet consisted of very tough food.

    • As the climate changes brain function increases so that this species may be intelligent enough to understand new ways of living and how to survive and work together.

Templeton, Alan R. "Genetics And Recent Human Evolution." Evolution 61.7 (2007): 1507-519. Print.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Paranthropus aethiopicus

ParanthropusAethiopicus

  • Lived between 2.7 to 2.3 MYA

  • Lived in Eastern Africa

  • Large chewing muscles, likely to be the ancestor of ParanthropusBoisei

  • This species lived in a harsh environment, and had to eat tough foods. As a result powerful chewing muscles were necessary.

"Evolution of the Skull." Visual Dictionary. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.infovisual.info/03/019_en.html>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Australopithecus garhi

Australopithecus Garhi

  • Lived about 2.5 MYA

  • Lived in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia)

  • Large teeth, long Femur, but powerful arms maintained. Suggests longer strides during bipedal walking

  • Beginning 3 MYA there were major shifts in Africa’s climate every few thousand years

  • This increases the intelligent of the species to cope with the changing environment

"Evolution of the Skull." Visual Dictionary. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.infovisual.info/03/019_en.html>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Homo habilis

Homo Habilis

  • Lived about 2.4 to 1.4 MYA

  • Lived in Eastern and Southern Africa

  • Fairly short with the average height of five feet due to colder temperatures. Slightly larger brain due to changing environment. Walked upright as there were fewer trees in its habitat.

  • Between 2 to 1.7 MYA there was a spread of dry grasslands and drier habitats in East Africa

    • Members of this species were forced to work together due to limited resources, but brain size increased and teeth size decreased as they were no longer necessary as a way for the species to show dominance.

"Human Evolution." A Relationship Between Evolution, Genetics, Morality, Ethics, Psychology, Education, and Culture. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.onelife.com/evolve/manev.html>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Australopithecus sediba

Australopithecus Sediba

  • Lived About 1.95 to 1.78 MYA

  • Lived in Southern Africa

  • Slightly smaller brain due to changing environment and limited resources. Walked upright as there were fewer trees in its habitat. Walking upright freed the hands to manipulate other objects and create tools and weapons when necessary.

"Human Evolution." A Relationship Between Evolution, Genetics, Morality, Ethics, Psychology, Education, and Culture. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.onelife.com/evolve/manev.html>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Paranthropus boisei

ParanthropusBoisei

  • Lived between 2.3 to 1.2 MYA

  • Lived in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Malawi)

  • Large chewing muscles a massive jaw for tough foods, large molars and premolars, lived alongside Homo Erectus in Eastern Africa

    • This species required the use of larger chewing muscles to show dominance to the intellectually superior Homo Erectus. It also may have exhausted its food supply through competition between itself and members of the species Homo Erectus.

"Human Evolution." A Relationship Between Evolution, Genetics, Morality, Ethics, Psychology, Education, and Culture. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.onelife.com/evolve/manev.html>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Homo erectus

Homo Erectus

  • Lived About 1.89 to 0.7 MYA

  • Lived in Africa and Asia

  • First humans to make homes, eat large amounts of animal meat, and care for the old and weak. Longest living species on family tree.

  • Vegetation changed a great deal from 1.66 to 1.32 MYA, but Homo Erectus survived it all.

"Human Evolution." A Relationship Between Evolution, Genetics, Morality, Ethics, Psychology, Education, and Culture. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.onelife.com/evolve/manev.html>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Second and third major achievements of humans

Second and Third Major Achievements of Humans

  • By 0.8 MYA control of fire was adapted. Early humans probably gathered around campfires to socialize, to find comfort and warmth, to share food and information, and find safety from predators

  • From 0.8 to 0.2 MYA human brain size evolved rapidly during a time of dramatic climate change. Larger brains allowed early humans to interact with each other and as the environment became more unpredictable larger brains helped our ancestors survive.


Homo heidelbergensis

Homo Heidelbergensis

  • Lived about 0.7 to 0.2 MYA

  • Lived in China, Eastern Africa, and Southern Africa

  • First early humans to venture into the cold latitudes of Europe and hunted big game animals. European populations of this species were direct ancestors of Neanderthals.

  • 0.356 to 0.05 MYA the orbit around the sun became elongated allowing for long periods of time of no climatic changes allowing humans to survive without being interrupted.

"Human Evolution." A Relationship Between Evolution, Genetics, Morality, Ethics, Psychology, Education, and Culture. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.onelife.com/evolve/manev.html>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Homo neanderthalensis

Homo Neanderthalensis

  • Lived between 0.2 to 0.028 MYA

  • Lived in Europe and Central Asia

  • Large middle part of the face, angled cheek bones, short extremities, large nose for humidifying and warming/cooling, first early humans to wear clothing because they lived in glacial environments. May have been the first humans to use language, bury their dead and exhibit symbolic behavior.

  • 0.356 to 0.05 MYA the orbit around the sun became elongated allowing for long periods of time of no climatic changes allowing humans to survive without being interrupted.

"Human Evolution - New Scientist." Science News and Science Jobs from New Scientist - New Scientist. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.newscientist.com/topic/human-evolution>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Homo floresiensis

Homo Floresiensis

  • Lived between 0.095 to 0.017 MYA

  • Lived in Indonesia, Asia

  • May have been small in all characteristics due to limited resources, as well as cold temperatures.

"Human Evolution - New Scientist." Science News and Science Jobs from New Scientist - New Scientist. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.newscientist.com/topic/human-evolution>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Homo sapiens

Homo Sapiens

  • Lived 0.2 MYA to present

  • Lived in Africa and then spread to rest of the world

  • Began moving out of Africa about 100,000 years ago. The rapid climate changes led to enormous increases in brain size to cope with these changes.

  • 0.356 to 0.05 MYA the orbit around the sun became elongated allowing for long periods of time of no climatic changes allowing humans to survive without being interrupted.

  • Homo sapiens almost went extinct between 0.09 to 0.07 MYA due to widespread drought and the human species may have been reduced to as few as 10,000 adults of reproductive age.

    • Superior intelligence allowed this species to survive by conserving its resources, living in groups, and working together to survive.

"Human Evolution - New Scientist." Science News and Science Jobs from New Scientist - New Scientist. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.newscientist.com/topic/human-evolution>.

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.


Forth major achievement of humans

Forth Major Achievement of Humans

  • 0.012 MYA humans began to domesticate plants and animals which led to the farming and herding of animals which changed earth’s landscapes

"Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/domestication-3.jpg>.


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Changes in the environment increase intelligence as a method of survival, however a large brain size does not necessarily mean higher intelligence.

  • Lamarck’s idea of the property of use and disuse can be seen in brain function in humans over time as well as muscle mass, lengthy extremities, and jaw sizes.

  • Similar Examples in Other Species

    • The giraffe which uses its neck a lot to snatch food from the tops of trees

    • Penguins have small wings because they do not use them to fly

  • Common Misconceptions

    The most common is that human evolution does not exist but all of the fossil evidence shows that human evolution does exist

    Another is that humans did not evolve from ape-like ancestors which is not true as can be seen by examining ancient human fossil

    With every change in human evolution, humans move forward. This is not necessarily true because evolution occurs and the fittest of a group survive. The fittest may be the most intelligent or the most powerful in strength

    Another common misconception is that homo sapiens are the direct descendants of homo Neanderthalensis


Relations

Relations


Future

Future

  • Rising carbon dioxide levels will force humans to find solutions and become more intelligent

  • New species of humans may be formed through genetic engineering and they will probably be incredibly intelligent to cope with our increasingly information based world

  • If the current trends continue, then humans will probably need to survive with far less oxygen, possibly meaning an increased lung capacity, as carbon dioxide levels continue to rise.

  • Populations are continuing to grow, which may cause the human species to go extinct in the future

  • Analogy: Think of the earth’s ability to support life in a 24 hour period. We are now at nine o’clock in the morning, humans diverged from apes a minute ago, and the human species started to exist one to two seconds ago

  • The lack of effective natural selection in industrialized countries may cause the human species to deteriorate

  • Due to increasing levels of carbon dioxide and a decrease in vegetation worldwide human cranial capacity as well as other characteristics of humans could become far small due to limited resources similar to Homo Floresiensis which faced similar challenges

  • Overall, there are various charts and graphs to consult when attempting to discover where the human race is moving towards, but due to the incredible technological advancements made by homo sapiens in their short existence almost anything is possible. The future hominid species, or Homo Novus if you will, could easily fly, contain super human strength and even have a tail. Technology doesn’t seem to set any limits to how far humans can go


Works cited

Works Cited

  • "Climate History." Home Page. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.scotese.com/climate.htm>.

  • "Evolution of the Skull." Visual Dictionary. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.infovisual.info/03/019_en.html>.

  • "Google Images." Google. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://technabob.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/dali-clock.jpg>.

  • "Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.macroevolution.net/images/human-evolution-timeline-500-347-25.jpg>.

  • "Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/domestication-3.jpg>.

  • "Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freeonlinepicture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/world-map.gif>.

  • "Google Images." Google. Web. 02 June 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://i38.tinypic.com/5ydpbb.jpg>.

  • "Human Evolution - New Scientist." Science News and Science Jobs from New Scientist - New Scientist. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.newscientist.com/topic/human-evolution>.

  • "Human Evolution." A Relationship Between Evolution, Genetics, Morality, Ethics, Psychology, Education, and Culture. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.onelife.com/evolve/manev.html>.

  • "Human Evolution Animation. Video." Funny Videos, Funny Pictures, Flash Games, Jokes. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.ebaumsworld.com/video/watch/735440/>.

  • "The Impact of Natural Selection on the Future of Humanity." Metapsychology. 31 May 2011. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=6101&cn=167>.

  • Interest, TopicGeneral. "The Human Lineage Through Time." Becoming Human. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.becominghuman.org/node/human-lineage-through-time>.

  • "Mankind Has Stopped Evolving." Big Think. 31 May 2011. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UkuCtIko798>.

  • "Misconceptions About Human Evolution - Writing.Com." The Online Community for Writers - Writing.Com. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.writing.com/main/view_item/item_id/1610141-Misconceptions-About-Human-Evolution>.

  • Stefoff, Rebecca. Modern Humans. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2010. Print.

  • Templeton, Alan R. "Genetics And Recent Human Evolution." Evolution 61.7 (2007): 1507-519. Print.

  • Thomas, Herbert. Human Origins: the Search for Our Beginnings. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994. Print.


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