e -. proton. CHAPTER 19 Magnetism. There is a relationship between electricity and magnetism. A moving electric charge produces a magnetic field (B-field). Question: All materials contain moving electric charges (electrons). So why are not all materials magnetic? Answer:
There is a relationship between electricity and magnetism.
A moving electric charge produces a magnetic field (B-field).
All materials contain moving electric charges (electrons). So why are not all materials magnetic?
Their atoms are randomly orientated and the
B-fields (vectors) cancel each other out.
Domains Not Aligned
Domains Roughly Aligned
Why are there any magnetic materials?
Some materials contain “domains” ( 10-4m across) where the motion of electrons is roughly aligned. When these domains are aligned, the material becomes magnetic.
Magnetic Materials (have domains)
A compass needle is a magnet.
Magnets have “north” and “south” poles.
Opposites attract. Like poles repel.
The pointed end of the compass needle is a north pole and it points to a south pole (magnetic) in the picture and when used to find your way home.
Magnetic Field Lines
A model to help visualize the invisible.
Exit north pole of a magnet.
Enter south pole of a magnet.
o = permeability of free space
o = 4x10-7 Tm/A
Magnitude of B-field
What about the B-field direction?
Use another Right-Hand-Rule
Grab wire with thumb pointing in direction of current.
Fingers wrapping around wire point in direction of B-field
FB = q v B
Wb = Weber
A magnetic force, FB, is exerted on a charged particle moving through a magnetic field.
FB = q v B sin
q = electric charge of the particle (C)
v = velocity of particle (m/s)
B = strength of magnetic field (T) T = Teslas
= angle between velocity and B- field vectors
FB = FB,max where =90; = 90 (often in AP Physics)
[B] = [T]
What is the direction of B-field?
What is the direction of FB?
Note “ ” demotes tip of arrow pointed out of paper.
FB = q v B = magnitude of the force
But what is its direction?
Note “x” denotes tail of arrow pointed into paper
= q v B
What do we call this type of force?
FC = FB
FBis the centripetal force
From Right Hand Rule we see that FB is always directed towards the center of circular path.
Often used formula easily derived
FB = q B
FB = q v B
l = length of wire in the magnetic field
FB = I L B
What will be the direction of the FB acting on the wire?
A second current carrying wire is placed in this B-field.
What is the direction of FB on this second wire?
FB on right wire points toward left wire.
Parallel wires with same direction current are attracted to each other.
Prove left wire is attracted to right wire.
Prove if current are opposite directions, wires repel each other.