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Maxwell’s Equations

Describe EVERYTHING in Electromagnetism

Gauss’ Law (Magnetic)

No magnetic monopole exists

Maxwell’s equations(second version)

Maxwell’s Equation(Two Versions)

Electromagnetic Wave

E

Light is represented by fluctuations in the magnetic and electric field called electromagnetic waves. EM wave is a consequence of the Maxwell’s Equation.

B

Basic Facts about EM waves in vacuum

- Always travels at exactly the speed of light c.
- E and B are always perpendicular.
- E×B gives the direction of the wave.
- |E|=|cB|
- Two independent direction of polarization (later)

Question

This is precisely the speed of light! Conclusive proof that light is a kind of EM wave.

How to produce EM waves

- Acceleration of charges
- Electrons jumping in energy levels in atoms
- Changing energy levels in molecules

Poynting Vector

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