The impact of residential mobility on measurements of neighbourhood effects
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 11

The Impact of Residential Mobility on Measurements of Neighbourhood Effects PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 78 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Impact of Residential Mobility on Measurements of Neighbourhood Effects. Lina Bergström Institute for Housing and Urban Studies Uppsala University [email protected]

Download Presentation

The Impact of Residential Mobility on Measurements of Neighbourhood Effects

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The impact of residential mobility on measurements of neighbourhood effects

The Impact of Residential Mobility on Measurements of Neighbourhood Effects

Lina Bergström

Institute for Housing and Urban Studies

Uppsala University

[email protected]


The impact of residential mobility on measurements of neighbourhood effects

Source: Andersson, R (2008) Neighbourhood Effects and the Welfare State. Towards a European research agenda? Schmollers Jahrbuch 128 pp. 1-14 (Data from GeoSweden)


The impact of residential mobility on measurements of neighbourhood effects

Change in Ethnic Composition 1991-2006, Tensta, Stockholm

Source: GeoSweden


A holistic framework

A holistic framework

Moving patterns

Moving patterns

Moving patterns

Individual

mobility

Time t

Time t+1

Neighbourhood conditions

Neighbourhood conditions

Aggregate

behaviour

Individual

behaviour

Aggregate

behaviour

Individual

behaviour


Challenge 1 exposure time

Challenge 1: Exposure time

  • Transmission mechanisms require a critical amount of exposure

    Problems:

  • How long residing in neighbourhood?

    - is exposure sufficient?

    - affects on impact

  • During what time in life?

  • How do exposure to different neighbourhoods relate to each other?


Challenge 2 neighbourhood change

Challenge 2: Neighbourhood Change

  • Neighbourhood context may change over time

  • The urban opportunity structure may change over time

    Problems:

  • Estimate exposure to constant neighbourhood?

  • Observable and unobservable characteristics

  • Aggregate levels vs. individual influence


The impact of residential mobility on measurements of neighbourhood effects

Solutions:

  • Sampling

    • Exposure to neighbourhood

      Problem: changing contexts

    • Exposure to environmental characteristic

      Problem: impact of specific neighbourhoods

    • Exposure to stable neighbourhood context

      Problem: small, unrepresentative and biased samples

  • Control variables for exposure time and changing contexts

    Problem: finding enough and “right” control variables

  • Complementary data, e.g. surveys


Challenge 3 selection bias

Challenge 3: Selection bias

  • People select themselves into neighbourhoods for reasons unknown to the researcher

  • Reasons might be correlated with outcome

  • Most scholars agree that bias exist, some argue that all effects are due to bias

    Problem:

    Eliminating selection bias to find effect of neighbourhood


The impact of residential mobility on measurements of neighbourhood effects

Solutions:

  • Experimental data (like MTO)

    Problem: Rare, must fulfil criteria of exposure and selection bias control

  • Statistical techniques

    • Sibling analysis

    • Difference modelling

    • Instrumental variables

      Problem: Eliminate bias but says nothing about selection processes

  • Modelling neighbourhood choice

    Problem: Explanatory value need to be good for eliminating selection bias


Challenge 4 endogeneity bias

Challenge 4: Endogeneity bias

  • The choice of neighbourhood as a joint decision with choice of tenure, type of housing, length of stay

  • All may be correlated with outcome

    Problem

  • Isolating the effect of the neighbourhood

    Solution

  • Instrumental variables

    Problem: finding good instruments


Conclusion implications for research

Conclusion: Implications for research

  • Residential mobility and neighbourhood effects are two interconnected fields

  • Mobility must be incorporated into models

  • Longitudinal data!

  • Control for exposure (ind./neigh’d)

  • Control for selection bias

  • Control for endogeneity

  • Or: Results will be biased or do not (necessarily) estimate neighbourhood effects!


  • Login