the impact of residential mobility on measurements of neighbourhood effects
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The Impact of Residential Mobility on Measurements of Neighbourhood Effects. Lina Bergström Institute for Housing and Urban Studies Uppsala University [email protected]

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the impact of residential mobility on measurements of neighbourhood effects

The Impact of Residential Mobility on Measurements of Neighbourhood Effects

Lina Bergström

Institute for Housing and Urban Studies

Uppsala University

[email protected]

slide2

Source: Andersson, R (2008) Neighbourhood Effects and the Welfare State. Towards a European research agenda? Schmollers Jahrbuch 128 pp. 1-14 (Data from GeoSweden)

a holistic framework
A holistic framework

Moving patterns

Moving patterns

Moving patterns

Individual

mobility

Time t

Time t+1

Neighbourhood conditions

Neighbourhood conditions

Aggregate

behaviour

Individual

behaviour

Aggregate

behaviour

Individual

behaviour

challenge 1 exposure time
Challenge 1: Exposure time
  • Transmission mechanisms require a critical amount of exposure

Problems:

  • How long residing in neighbourhood?

- is exposure sufficient?

- affects on impact

  • During what time in life?
  • How do exposure to different neighbourhoods relate to each other?
challenge 2 neighbourhood change
Challenge 2: Neighbourhood Change
  • Neighbourhood context may change over time
  • The urban opportunity structure may change over time

Problems:

  • Estimate exposure to constant neighbourhood?
  • Observable and unobservable characteristics
  • Aggregate levels vs. individual influence
slide7
Solutions:
  • Sampling
    • Exposure to neighbourhood

Problem: changing contexts

    • Exposure to environmental characteristic

Problem: impact of specific neighbourhoods

    • Exposure to stable neighbourhood context

Problem: small, unrepresentative and biased samples

  • Control variables for exposure time and changing contexts

Problem: finding enough and “right” control variables

  • Complementary data, e.g. surveys
challenge 3 selection bias
Challenge 3: Selection bias
  • People select themselves into neighbourhoods for reasons unknown to the researcher
  • Reasons might be correlated with outcome
  • Most scholars agree that bias exist, some argue that all effects are due to bias

Problem:

Eliminating selection bias to find effect of neighbourhood

slide9
Solutions:
  • Experimental data (like MTO)

Problem: Rare, must fulfil criteria of exposure and selection bias control

  • Statistical techniques
    • Sibling analysis
    • Difference modelling
    • Instrumental variables

Problem: Eliminate bias but says nothing about selection processes

  • Modelling neighbourhood choice

Problem: Explanatory value need to be good for eliminating selection bias

challenge 4 endogeneity bias
Challenge 4: Endogeneity bias
  • The choice of neighbourhood as a joint decision with choice of tenure, type of housing, length of stay
  • All may be correlated with outcome

Problem

  • Isolating the effect of the neighbourhood

Solution

  • Instrumental variables

Problem: finding good instruments

conclusion implications for research
Conclusion: Implications for research
  • Residential mobility and neighbourhood effects are two interconnected fields
  • Mobility must be incorporated into models
  • Longitudinal data!
  • Control for exposure (ind./neigh’d)
  • Control for selection bias
  • Control for endogeneity
  • Or: Results will be biased or do not (necessarily) estimate neighbourhood effects!
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