Representing the Elderly in Digital Human Modelling
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Representing the Elderly in Digital Human Modelling. Dan Högberg 1 Lars Hanson 2 Daniel Lundström 3 Maria Jönsson 4 Dan Lämkull 5 1 The School of Technology and Society, University of Skövde, Sweden 2 Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, Sweden

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Representing the Elderly in Digital Human Modelling

Dan Högberg 1

Lars Hanson 2

Daniel Lundström3

Maria Jönsson4

Dan Lämkull5

1 The School of Technology and Society, University of Skövde, Sweden

2 Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, Sweden

3Semcon Caran AB, Gothenburg, Sweden

4ArjoHuntleigh R&D Center, Lund, Sweden

5Volvo Car Corporation, Manufacturing Engineering, Gothenburg, Sweden

e-mail: [email protected]


The Research Project

“Visualisering av brukarkaraktäristik vid produktutveckling inom fordons- och hälsoindustrin“

“Digital Albert”

Carried out within Virtual Ergonomics Centre [www.vec.se]

Financially supported by the Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen) in Sweden and by the participating organisations


Overall Purpose

  • Enhanced knowledge about how to design tools for people that are designing products and environments for people

  • Designers, architects and engineers

  • Understand the user

  • People unlike oneself

  • People who are sometimes considered a less important group of customers when designing products

  • Get the Aha I didn’t knew that, I see, OK good


Overall Complexities

Designers, architects and engineers are people - with different knowledge, attitudes, interests, tasks…

Design is in itself a complex activity

Users and their tasks are different

THE design tool is hard to establish

Begin by a certain application and by using existing design tools and methods


To the Details

Application

Health care solutions design (products) at ArjoHuntleigh


To the Details

  • Computer Aided Design Tool

  • Modification of Digital Human Modelling (DHM) tools to better represent elderly people

  • Manikin has the characteristics and appearance of an able healthy young or middle-aged human


To the Details

  • User representation method

  • Utilisation of Arjo’s established method “The Mobility Gallery”

  • A communication tool structured according to five different levels of functional mobility.

  • Residents are classified according to their degree of functional mobility, from the most mobile and independent to the most dependent and entirely bedridden resident.

  • Labelled Albert, Barbara, Carl, Doris and Emma.

  • Each resident is described with different personal characteristics and background details and an illustration.


To the Details

The Mobility Gallery – Barbara (B)

The resident is partly capable of performing daily activities independently. However, the assistance that is required is in general not physically demanding for the carer. The assistance may consist of verbal support, feedback or indications, but light physical assistance is also possible. This assistance can be given in combination with smaller aids (walking aids, support or grips and handles) or adaptations in the environment of the resident (grips and handles). Barbara’s remaining capacity should be stimulated.

Characteristics

• Uses walking frame or similar

• Can support herself to some degree

• Dependent on carer who is present in demanding situations

• Not physically demanding for carer

• Stimulation of remaining abilities (e.g. ambulation) is very important

(Arjo, 2005)


To the Details

The Mobility Gallery – Barbara (B)

Barbara, an 82-year-old (62 kg) widow, has lived in the care home for three years. Her husband died seven years ago. In her working life she was a primary school teacher. Her children and grandchildren live nearby and like to visit her. She seems happy in the care home.

There is a combination of medical problems. Due to a heart condition, she occasionally gets very dizzy, and a rheumatic disease makes her joints, especially her knees, stiff and painful. She also gets tired quickly. Because of her dizziness and knee pains she is afraid of falling. The doctor encourages her to keep moving as much as possible: "If you rest, you will rust", he says.

(Arjo, 2005)

[Circa one third of the personal description of Barbara]


Approach

1 – Anthropometry

2 – Range of motion data

3 – Mapping of Mobility Gallery descriptions

4 – Age-corresponding appearance


Results - Anthropometry

Manikin family structure based on recommendations from Speyer (2005)

Population: Elderly British Males and Females, Age group 75+ (Smith et al., 2000)



Preliminary Results – Range of Motion

Range of motion data from Older Adultdata (Smith, et al., 2000)

Prototype %-ile values



Results - Mapping of Mobility Gallery Descriptions

Barbara (B)

Mobility DescriptionThe resident is partly capable of performing daily activities independently. However, the assistance that is required is in general not physically demanding for the carer. The assistance may consist of verbal support, feedback or indications, but light physical assistance is also possible. This assistance can be given in combination with smaller aids (walking aids, support or grips and handles) or adaptations in the environment of the resident (grips and handles). Barbara’s remaining capacity should be stimulated.

Characteristics

• Uses walking frame or similar

• Can support herself to some degree

• Dependent on carer who is present in demanding situations

• Not physically demanding for carer

• Stimulation of remaining abilities (e.g. ambulation) is very important

Link to Personal Description

Anthropometry – Manikin F2Stature 1449 mm, Weight 61 kg, Sitting height 756 mm

Range of Motion dataShoulder Extension 38 deg. (Supported 42 deg.)Shoulder Flexion 161 deg. (Supported 164 deg.)


Preliminary Results – Appearance

An attempt to create Albert in the illustration software Poser 7.


Discussion

According to a study by Goodman et al. (2007), based on literature review, observations and interviews with designers, designers prefer information that is:

- Quick and easy to find and use

- Visual and stimulating

- Flexible and open-ended

and

- Relate clearly to design issues

We consider that our prototype tool meet these requirements.


Coming Steps

Fine tune anthropometry and range of motion data

Continue work on age-corresponding appearance

Development of a illustrative demonstrator

Evaluation


Thank you!

Dan Högberg

The School of Technology and Society, University of Skövde, Sweden

e-mail: [email protected]


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