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HIV AND AIDS. What is HIV?. H uman I mmunodeficiency V irus

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HIV AND AIDS

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HIV AND AIDS


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What is HIV?

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

is the virus that weakens the immune system and can cause AIDS. The virus can be passed from one person to another through blood-to-blood and sexual contact. Pregnant women can pass HIV to their baby during pregnancy or delivery as well as through breast feeding. People with HIV have what is called HIV infection.

Traditionally only AIDS cases have been reported. But recently in California, new cases of HIVinfection are being reported by a unique identifier (no names).


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Where did it come from?

The earliest known case was from a blood sample collected in 1959 from a man in the Republic of Congo (how he became infected is not known). Genetic analysis of this blood sample suggests that HIV-1 may have stemmed from a single virus in the late 1940’s or early 1950’s.

The cause of AIDS is a virus that scientists isolated in 1983. The virus was first named HTLV-III (human T-cell lymphotropic virus-type III. Later it was changed to HIV.

There are two types of HIV. HIV-1 mostly found in the U.S. HIV-2 mostly found in Europe, Asia, Africa and Sub-Saharan countries.


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Some scientists believe HIV spread from monkeys to humans between 1926 – 1946. Recent research indicates HIV most probably first crossed species from chimpanzees to humans as early as 1675 and did not establish itself as a epidemic in Africa until 1930.

1926

History

Researchers studied 1,213 plasma samples obtained from Africa between 1959 – 1982. The 1959 sample tested positive HIV-1 becoming the oldest confirmed case of HIV. The case of a Manchester sailor who died of AIDS-like illness in 1959 was reported to be the oldest, but it has not been confirmed.

1959

1978

Gay men in the US & Sweden – heterosexuals in Tanzania and Haiti begin showing symptoms of what later be called AIDS.


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1984

Robert Gallo claims he discovered the virus a year later after the French isolated it. U.S. President Reagan has not mentioned the word AIDS in public. 11,055 cases in the U.S.; 5,620 dead.

History

CDC notices an alarming rate of of rare cancer (Kaposi's Sarcoma). First called “gay cancer” soon after rename it GRID (gay related immune deficiency). 1,614 AIDS cases diagnosed in the U.S.; 619 dead

1981

CDC warns blood banks of possible problem with the blood supply. Institut Pasteur in France finds the virus. 4,749 cases of AIDS in the U.S.; 2,122 dead.

1983


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History

FDA approves the first HIV-1 antibody test. The first International Conference on AIDS is held in Atlanta, GA. Nothing from President Reagan yet. 22,996 AIDS cases in the U.S.; 12,592 dead – including: Rock Hudson and Ricky Wilson (B-52’s).

1985

1987

AZT becomes the first drug approved by the FDA. 71,176 AIDS cases diagnosed in the U.S.; 41,027 dead – including: Liberace and Michael Bennett (Chorus Line).

Ronald Reagan apologizes for his neglect of the epidemic while he was president. Magic Johnson tells the world he has HIV. 257,750 AIDS diagnosed in the U.S.; 157,637 dead – including: Keith Haring (artist), Ryan White.

1990


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History

FDA approves the first Protease Inhibitors for HIV treatment. 534,806 AIDS diagnosis, 332,249 dead in the U.S.

1995

For the first time, death from AIDS plummeted more than 40 percent during the first half of 1997. Scientists say the decline can be traced to new drugs. As well the number of new cases of AIDS are decreasing, but about 40,000 new HIV infections occur each year.''

1997

For the first time in more than 17 years, the Bay Area Reporter (A SF Gay weekly) contained no obituaries of AIDS victims.

1998

CDC reports that HIV infection rates rising among Gay and Bisexual men.

2003


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How HIV infects the body

When HIV infects the body, it prefers to attack certain cells of our defense system. These cells are called helper T cells. HIV specializes in these cells since these cells have CD4 molecules on the surface to which HIV binds

helper T cell

A person normally has between 600 – 1500 T cells


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How HIV infects the body

The virus anchors itself to the CD4 on the surface of the helper T cell causing the viral membrane to fuse with the host cell’s membrane. This is how the virus genetic information gets inside the cell.

The virus’s DNA converts itself into RNA


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How HIV infects the body

A copy of the RNA genetic information is added to the bubble . This section of the cell membrane turns inside out and new viruses are released.

Cell Death

The release of new virus particles significantly weakens the host cell which soon dies. That’s how the immune system weakens.


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Transmission

These bodily fluids have been proven to spread HIV:

  • blood

  • semen

  • pre-ejaculate or pre-cum

  • vaginal fluids

  • breast milk


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HIV Symptoms

  • rapid weight loss

  • dry cough

  • recurring fever or profuse night sweats

  • profound & unexplained fatigue

  • swollen lymph glands

  • diarrhea lasting more than one week

  • white spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, mouth or throat

  • pneumonia

  • Red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids.

  • Memory loss, depression, and other neurological disorders


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What is AIDS?

Acquired

Immuno

Deficiency

Syndrome

An HIV infected person receives an AIDS diagnosis after developing one of the CDC-defined opportunistic infections and or a CD4 cell count of below 200.

AIDS cases are reportable to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


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AIDS Defining Conditions

(Opportunistic Infections)

1.Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs

2.Candidiasis, esophageal

3.CD4 counts below 200, or a CD4 percentage less than 14

4.Cervical cancer, invasive

5.Coccidiomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary (Valley Fever)

6.Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary

7.Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal (>1 month duration)

8.Cytomegalovirus disease (CMV); other than liver, spleen or nodes

9.Cytomegalovirus retinitis (with loss of vision)

10.HIV encephalopathy

11.Herpes simplex: chronic ulcer(s) (>1 month duration); or bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis

12.Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary


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Opportunistic Infections… continued

13.Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (>1 month duration)

14.Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS)

15.Lymphoma, Burkitt's (or equivalent term)

16.Lymphoma, immunoblastic (or equivalent term)

17.Lymphoma, primary in brain

18.Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), disseminated or extrapulmonary

19.Mycobacterium tuberculosis, any site (pulmonary or extrapulmonary)

20.Mycobacterium,, disseminated or extrapulmonary

21.Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)

22.Pneumonia, recurrent

23.Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

24Salmonella septicemia, recurrent

25.Toxoplasmosis of brain

26.Wasting syndrome due to HIV


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Testing

Antibody Testing

Detects the specific immune response to HIV the body sends out to fight HIV infection (antibodies). Takes 2 weeks to 6 months (window period) to develop enough antibodies for the test to be 99.8 % accurate.

  • Oral test – OraSure

  • Blood test

  • Rapid Test

    PCR/DNA (Viral Load)

    Detects the presence of the HIV-1 or HIV-2 in the body. The window period for this test is 14 days to be 100% accurate.

  • Blood only


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Prevention

  • Not having sex (abstinence) is the safest

  • Condoms are best protection to prevent the transfer of fluids

  • Limit the number of sex partners. This may lower your chances of getting infected

  • Not sharing needles for IV drug use, steroids, vitamins, etc..

  • Not sharing toys

  • Test every 6 months for all STD’s. The presence of an STD increases the chances of HIV infection.

  • Communicate with your partners about safer sex.


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STD 101


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Chlamydia

Cause Chlamydia Trachomatis (Bacteria)

How transmitted Direct contact with infected sexual

fluids during genital, oral or anal sex.

Symptoms Many males and most females have no

symptoms. May have burning on urination, discharge,

abdominal pain, pain during sex, or females may bleed

during or after sex. Symptoms begin 1-3 weeks or

longer after contact

Diagnostic tests Swab of urethra in males or cervix in

females, urine test, or swab of anus or throat

Treatment Antibiotics

Complications Can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

(PID) in females, which is a serious infection of the

reproductive organs that can lead to sterility. It can also

cause eye infections or pneumonia in infant during

birth.


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Gonorrhea

Cause Neisseria Gonorrhea (Bacteria)

How transmitted Direct contact with infected sexual

fluids during genital, oral or anal sex.

Symptoms May have no symptoms - especially

females. May have burning while urinating, and thick

yellowish discharge.

Diagnostic tests Swab of urethra in male and cervix in

female, urine test, and throat swab.

Treatment Antibiotics

Complications Can cause PID in females, which can

lead to sterility. Can cause heart and brain infection.

Can cause blindness in infants if infected during birth.


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Syphilis

Cause Treponema Pallidum (Bacteria)

How transmitted Direct contact with sores of infected

person. Case remains infectious for up to 2 years after

infected.

Symptoms A painless open sore (chancre) appears

between 10 days and 3 months after exposure. May

also cause skin rash on hands and feet. All symptoms

go away without treatment.

Diagnostic tests Blood test. Swab of chancre.

Treatment Antibiotics

Complications Can cause heart, brain, spinal cord,

bone and joint damage. Can cause death if

untreated.


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Genital Herpes

Cause Herpes Simplex Virus

How transmitted Direct skin-to-skin contact with the

site of infection to the site of contact during genital,

oral or anal sex.

Symptoms Painful sores appear on the genital, rectum,

or other parts of the body. Symptoms usually disappear

causing victims to mistakenly think they are cured.

Repeated outbreaks are common.

Diagnostic tests Swab of the sores or blisters. A blood

test is not a good indicator of infection.

Treatment Antiviral creams or pills. There is no cure.

Complications Can pass to other sites if not careful

with hand washing after touching sores. Infants can be

infected at birth causing serious medical problems

including death.


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Genital Warts

Cause Human Papilloma Virus

How transmitted Direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person or previously infected person. Warts may show up anywhere from 1 1/2 to 8 months after exposure.

Symptoms Causes a wart usually on genitals. May cause itching or burning. Usually found on the penis, vulva

(vagina), but also may be found on the mouth, throat,

cervix and anus.

Diagnostic tests Direct visual exam. Pap tests in females.

Treatment Warts may be removed with either liquid,

freezing or laser. Surgery may be required if severe.


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Hepatitis B(Also known as HBV)

Cause and Transmission: The virus can be spread by percutaneous routes (e.g. needle sharing, acupuncture, ear piercing, tattooing, transfusions, receiving blood products) and through very close personal contact involving the exchange of blood or secretions (e.g. sex, child birth, breast feeding, anal rimming, etc.). The most common means of transmission of HBV in the U.S. is via the sexual route.

Symptoms

• Fatigue

• Anorexia; recovery follows regaining appetite.

• Nausea pain and fullness in the upper right

quadrant

• Fever

• Arthritis and rash

• Liver shrinkage

• Severe liver damage and bleeding; can be fatal.


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Hepatitis B(Also known as HBV) cont.

At high risk for HBV infection:

• Intravenous drug users

• Patients undergoing blood transfusions or

hemodialysis lab

• Personnel in contact with blood and blood products

• Individuals with multiple sexual contacts

(heterosexual and homosexual)

• Immunosuppressed individuals

(e.g. people who are HIV +)

• Infants born to mothers with chronic HBV

• Residents and staff members of institutions for the

mentally handicapped.


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Crabs

Cause Phthirus Pubis (Pubic Lice)

How transmitted Close physical contact with an infected person (especially sexual contact) Also possible through sharing bedding, clothes, towels and possibly toilet seat.

Symptoms persistent itch in pubic hair - usually worse at night. May see live crab or brown specks in underwear.

Diagnostic tests Visual examination

Treatment Medicated lotion applied to pubic hair.

Complications Secondary infections from scratching.


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Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staph Aureus


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Clinical Aspects

  • Aggressive skin involvement with rapid progression of large, painful abscesses

  • Cellulitis, impetigo, folliculitis, furunculosis, and infected lacerations also seen

  • Incision and drainage = first line of therapy

  • Cultures and sensitivities to determine treatment agents


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Modes of Transmission

- Skin to skin contact with another person infected or colonized with MRSA

- Contact with a surface contaminated with the organism


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Possible Risk Factors

  • Exposure to health care settings, jails or prisons

  • Occupations or recreational activities with regular skin to skin contact

  • Exposure to antibiotics

  • Advanced age

  • Immune suppression


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Prevention Messages for Patients

  • Avoid sharing personal items such as towels, soap, clothes, razors etc.

  • Benches in saunas, hot tubs, and athletic equipment may harbor the organism thus efforts should be made not to contact these surfaces directly

  • Wash clothes with hot water and bleach


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