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Section 3 : Business Continuity. Backup and Recovery. Chapter 12. Chapter Objective. Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: Describe Backup/Recovery considerations Describe Backup/Recovery operations Describe Backup topologies Describe backup technologies.

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Backup and recovery

Section 3 : Business Continuity

Backup and Recovery

Chapter 12


Chapter objective

Chapter Objective

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Describe Backup/Recovery considerations

  • Describe Backup/Recovery operations

  • Describe Backup topologies

  • Describe backup technologies


Lesson backup recovery overview

Lesson: Backup/Recovery Overview

Upon completion of this lesson, you be able to:

  • Define Backup and backup consideration

  • Describe purposes of backup

  • Explain backup granularity and restore

  • List backup methods

  • Describe backup/recovery process and operation


What is a backup

What is a Backup?

  • Backup is an additional copy of data that can be used for restore and recovery purposes

  • The Backup copy is used when the primary copy is lost or corrupted

  • This Backup copy can be created by:

    • Simply copying data (there can be one or more copies)

    • Mirroring data (the copy is always updated with whatever is written to the primary copy)


It s all about recovery

It’s All About Recovery

  • Businesses back up their data to enable its recovery in case of potential loss

  • Businesses also back up their data to comply with regulatory requirements

  • Backup purposes:

    • Disaster Recovery

      • Restores production data to an operational state after disaster

    • Operational

      • Restore data in the event of data loss or logical corruptions that may occur during routine processing

    • Archival

      • Preserve transaction records, email, and other business work products for regulatory compliance


Backup considerations

Backup considerations

  • Primary considerations in selecting and implementing a specific backup strategy – the amount of data loss and downtime that a business can endure in term of RTO and RPO.

  • Retention period – duration for which a business needs to retain the backup copies.

  • Backup media type –based on retention period and accessibility.

  • Time to perform backup – to minimize any disruption to production operations.


Other considerations data

Other Considerations: Data

  • Location

    • Heterogeneous platform

      • Many organization have dozens of heterogeneous platforms supporting complex solutions.

      • i.e. data warehouse environment that uses backup data from ay sources, the backup process must address these sources in terms of transactional and content integrity.

      • This process must be coordinated with all heterogeneous platforms on which the data resides.

    • Local and remote

      • Is the backup for local or remote site


Continue

continue

  • File size –Large-size files may use less system resource than backing up an equal amount of data comprising a large number of small-size files.

    • 10 files of 1MB size vs. 10000 files of 1KB size

  • The use of data compression can save space

    • Text files compresses really well

    • Binary files cannot compress very well

    • Files such as JPEG and ZIP are already compressed and therefore is unlikely to be compressed further

  • The number of files to be backed up also influences the backup process- need more time to search through a file system.


  • Backup granularity level of details backup data

    Backup Granularity –level of details backup data

    • Backup granularity – depends on business needs and required RTO/RPO.

      • Full backup

        • Backup of the complete data at a certain point in time

        • Advantages:

          • All files from the selected drive(i.e.) and folders are backed up to one backup set.

          • Easy to restore files- restore from the single backup set

        • Disadvantages:

          • More time consuming

          • Require more space


    Continue1

    Continue…

    • Incremental backup

      • Copies data that has changed since the last full or incremental backup which ever has occurred more recently.

        Example :

        Monday – perform the first I.B of selected files and folder with the incremental option

        Tuesday – perform another backup with the backup file set you created on Monday. Only files that have changed since Monday’s backup are backed up.

        Wednesday – perform another backup with the backup file set you created Monday.

        Only files that have changed since Tuesday’s incremental backup are backed up.

  • Advantages:

    • Backup time is faster than full backup

    • IB require less disk/space

    • You can keep different versions of the same files on different backup sets

  • Disadvantages:

    • In order to store all the files, you must have all the incremental backups available.

    • Take longer time to restore a specific file since you must search more than one backup set to find the latest version of a file.


  • Continue2

    Continue..

    • Cumulative (differential) backup

      • Copies data that has changed since the last full backup

      • Saves only the files that are different or new since the last full backup

        Example;

        Monday – perform a full backup and save the file set.

        Tuesday – perform a differential backup using the same file set.

        All files that have changed since the full backup are backed up in the differential backup.

        Wednesday – perform a differential backup using the same file set. All the files that have changed since Monday’s full backup are backed up.

      • Advantages:

        • D.B require very less space

        • Backup time is faster than full or IB

      • Disadvantages:

        • Restoring all your files may take longer time since you need to restore both the last differential and full backup


    Continue3

    Continue..

    • Synthetic (constructed) full backup

      • A full backup generated from the latest full backup and all the incremental backups performed after that full backup

      • Enables full backup copy to be done offline

      • A synthetic backup is identical to a regular full backup in terms of data,

      • However it is created when data is collected from a previous, older full backup and assembled with subsequent incremental backups.

      • The incremental backup will consist only of changed information.

      • A synthetic backup would be used when time or system requirements do not allow for a full complete backup.

        [ref: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/synthetic_backup.html]


    Continue4

    Continue..

    Ref: Symantec.images


    Backup granularity

    Full Backup

    Su

    Su

    Su

    Su

    Su

    Cumulative (Differential) Backup

    Su

    Su

    Su

    Su

    Su

    M

    T

    W

    T

    F

    S

    M

    T

    W

    T

    F

    S

    M

    T

    W

    T

    F

    S

    M

    T

    W

    T

    F

    S

    Incremental Backup

    Su

    Su

    Su

    Su

    Su

    M

    T

    W

    T

    F

    S

    M

    T

    W

    T

    F

    S

    M

    T

    W

    T

    F

    S

    M

    T

    W

    T

    F

    S

    Amount of data backup

    Backup Granularity


    Restore operations

    Restore operations

    • Restore operations vary with the granularity of the backup.

    • A full backup provides a single repository from which data can be easily restored.

    • The restoration from IB requires the last full backup and all the IB available until the point of restoration.

    • The restoration from a cumulative backup requires the last full backup and the most recent cumulative backup.


    Restoring from incremental backup

    Key Features

    Files that have changed since the last backup are backed up

    Fewest amount of files to be backed up, therefore faster backup and less storage space

    Longer restore because last full and all subsequent incremental backups must be applied

    Monday

    Tuesday

    Wednesday

    Thursday

    Friday

    Files 1, 2, 3

    File 4

    Updated File 3

    File 5

    Files 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

    Incremental

    Incremental

    Full Backup

    Incremental

    Production

    Restoring from Incremental Backup


    Continue5

    Continue..

    • A full backup is performed on Monday evening.

    • Each day after that IB is performed.

    • On Tuesday, a new file (file 4 ) is added, and no other files have changed.

    • Consequently only file 4 is copied during the IB performed on Tuesday.

    • On Wednesday no new files is added, but file 3 has been modified. Therefore only the modified file 3 is copied during the IB on Wednesday evening.

    • The IB on Thursday copies only file 5.

    • On Friday morning, data corruption – need to restore data.

    • Steps in data restoration:

      • Restore all data from the full backup on Monday evening.

      • Apply the IB on Tuesday, wed and Thursday

      • Hence data can be successfully restored to its previous state


    Restoring from cumulative backup

    Key Features

    More files to be backed up, therefore it takes more time to backupand uses more storage space

    Much faster restore because only the last full and the last cumulativebackup must be applied

    Friday

    Monday

    Tuesday

    Wednesday

    Thursday

    Files 1, 2, 3

    File 4

    Files 4, 5

    Files 4, 5, 6

    Files 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

    Full Backup

    Cumulative

    Cumulative

    Cumulative

    Production

    Restoring from Cumulative Backup


    Continue6

    Continue…

    • A full backup is taken on Monday evening.

    • Each day after that, a cumulative backup is taken.

    • On Tuesday, file 4 added and no other data is modified since the previous full backup on Monday evening.

    • Hence, the CB on Tuesday evening copies only file 4.

    • On wed, file 5 is added.

    • The CB taking place on Wednesday evening copies both file 4 and 5 because both files have been added /modified since the last full backup.

    • On Thursday, file 6 is added- the CB on Thursday evening copies all three files, 4,5, and 6.

    • Friday-data corruption – need to restore

    • Restoration using CB:

      • Restore all data from full backup done in Monday

      • Apply only the latest cumulative backup – Thursday evening

      • the production volume data can easily be restored to its previous sate on Thursday evening.


    Backup methods

    Backup Methods

    • Cold or offline

      • The application is not active during the backup process.

    • Hot or online

      • The application is up and running when backup is performed, users accessing their data during the backup process.

      • Is used in a situation where it is not possible to shut down the database.

      • Disadvantage: affect overall application performance.


    Continue7

    Continue..

    • Backing up online production data is challenging because a file may be locked by the OS and cannot be copied until it is closed. There are two ways to handle this

      • Retry until file is closed and can be accessed

      • Use Open File Agents

        • These agents interact directly with the OS and enable the creation of consistent copies of open file.


    Continue8

    continue

    • Point in Time (PIT) copy method is deployed in environments where the impact of downtime from a cold backup or the performance resulting from a hot backup is unacceptable.

      • Copies snapshots of changed data

      • Consumes small space and can be created very quickly


    Continue9

    Continue…

    • In a disaster recovery environment – bare-metal recovery (BMR) – refer to backup in which all metadata, system information and application configurations are appropriate backup for a full system recovery.

    • BMR builds the base system – includes partitioning, the file layout, the OS, the applications and all the relevant configurations.

    • BMR recovers the base system first before starting the recovery of data files.

    • Notes:

      • Bare-metal restore is taking a physical machine that has crashed, and bringing it up on another physical machine.[example]-ref:http://searchdisasterrecovery.techtarget.com/podcast/What-you-need-to-know-about-bare-metal-restore-and-bare-metal-recovery


    Backup architecture and process

    Backup Architecture and Process

    • Uses client/server architecture

    • Backup client

      • Sends backup data to backup server or storage node

      • Can be local to the server or they can reside on another server

    • Backup server

      • Receives backup metadata from the backup clients to perform its activities.

      • Manages backup operations and maintains backup catalog

    • Storage node

      • Responsible for writing data to backup device

      • In backup environment, a storage node is a host that controls backup devices.

      • Integrated with the backup server and both are hosted on the same physical platform.

    Metadata Catalog

    Storage Array

    BackupData

    Backup Data

    Application Server&

    Backup Client

    Backup Server&

    Storage Node

    Tape Library


    Backup operation

    Start of scheduled backup process

    1

    Backup server retrieves backup related

    2

    information from backup catalog

    Backup server instructs storage node to

    3a

    load backup media in backup device

    Backup server instructs backup clients to

    3b

    send its metadata to the backup server

    and data to be backed up to storage node

    3b

    4

    Backup clients send data to storage node

    4

    Storage node sends data to backup device

    5

    1

    3a

    5

    Storage node sends media information to

    backup server

    6

    2

    Backup server update catalog and records

    7

    6

    7

    the status

    Backup Operation

    Application Server and Backup Clients

    Backup Server

    Storage Node

    Backup Device


    Restore operation

    Backup server scans backup catalog

    1

    to identify data to be restore and the

    client that will receive data

    Backup server instructs storage node

    2

    to load backup media in backup device

    Data is then read and send to backup

    3

    client

    Storage node sends restore metadata

    4

    to backup server

    3

    Backup server updates catalog

    5

    2

    1

    3

    5

    4

    Restore Operation

    Application Server and Backup Clients

    Backup Server

    Storage Node

    Backup Device


    Lesson summary

    Lesson Summary

    Key points covered in this lesson:

    • Purposes for Backup

    • Considerations for backup and recovery

    • Backup granularity

      • Full, Cumulative, Incremental

    • Backup methods

    • Backup/recovery process and operation


    Lesson backup recovery topologies technologies

    Lesson: Backup/Recovery Topologies & Technologies

    Upon completion of this lesson, you be able to:

    • Describe backup topologies

      • Direct backup

      • LAN and LAN free backup

      • Mixed backup

    • Detail backup in NAS environment

    • Describe backup technologies

      • Backup to tape

      • Backup to disk

      • Backup to virtual tape


    Backup topologies

    Backup Topologies

    • There are 3 basic backup topologies:

      • Direct Attached Based Backup

      • LAN Based Backup

      • SAN Based Backup

      • Mixed backup


    Direct attached backups

    Data

    Metadata

    LAN

    Direct Attached Backups

    Backup Server

    Application Server

    and Backup Client

    and Storage Node

    Backup Device


    Lan based backups

    LAN

    LAN Based Backups

    Application Server

    and Backup Client

    Backup Server

    Metadata

    Data

    Backup Device

    Storage Node


    San based backups lan free

    SAN Based Backups (LAN Free)

    FC SAN

    LAN

    Metadata

    Data

    Backup Device

    Backup Server

    Application Server

    and Backup Client

    Storage Node


    Mixed backup

    Mixed Backup

    Application Server

    and Backup Client

    Metadata

    FC SAN

    LAN

    Metadata

    Data

    Application Server

    and Backup Client

    Backup Server

    Backup Device

    Storage Node


    Backup in nas environment server based

    Backup in NAS Environment – Server Based

    Storage

    LAN

    FC SAN

    NAS Head

    Application Server

    (Backup Client)

    Backup Device

    Backup Request

    Data

    Metadata

    Backup Server/ Storage Node


    Backup in nas environment serverless

    Backup in NAS Environment – Serverless

    Storage

    LAN

    FC SAN

    NAS Head

    Application Server

    (Backup Client)

    Backup Device

    Backup Request

    Data

    Metadata

    Backup Server /

    Storage Node


    Backup in nas environment ndmp 2 way

    Backup in NAS Environment – NDMP 2-way

    Storage

    LAN

    FC SAN

    NAS Head

    Application Server

    (Backup Client)

    Backup Device

    Backup Request

    Data

    Metadata

    Backup Server


    Backing up a nas device ndmp 3 way

    FC SAN

    LAN

    LAN

    Backing up a NAS Device – NDMP 3-way

    NAS Head

    FC SAN

    Storage

    Application Server

    (Backup Client)

    NAS Head

    Backup Device

    Backup Request

    Data

    Metadata

    Backup Server


    Backup technology options

    Backup Technology options

    • Backup to Tape

      • Physical tape library

    • Backup to Disk

    • Backup to virtual tape

      • Virtual tape library


    Backup to tape

    Data fromStream 1

    Data fromStream 2

    Data fromStream 3

    Tape

    Backup to Tape

    • Traditional destination for backup

    • Low cost option

    • Sequential / Linear Access

    • Multiple streaming

      • Backup streams from multiple clients to a single backup device


    Physical tape library

    Drives

    Drives

    Cartridges

    Import/

    Export

    Mailbox

    Linear

    Robotics

    System

    Power Systems

    Server Class Main Controller

    I/O Management Unit

    Front View

    Back View

    Physical Tape Library


    Tape limitations

    Tape Limitations

    • Reliability

      • Restore performance

        • Mount, load to ready, rewind, dismount times

    • Sequential Access

    • Cannot be accessed by multiple hosts simultaneously

    • Controlled environment for tape storage

    • Wear and tear of tape

    • Shipping/handling challenges

    • Tape management challenges


    Backup to disk

    Backup to Disk

    • Ease of implementation

    • Fast access

    • More Reliable

    • Random Access

    • Multiple hosts access

    • Enhanced overall backup and recovery performance


    Tape versus disk restore comparison

    Tape versus Disk – Restore Comparison

    24Minutes

    DiskBackup / Restore

    108Minutes

    TapeBackup / Restore

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    110

    120

    Recovery Time in Minutes*

    Typical Scenario:

    • 800 users, 75 MB mailbox

    • 60 GB database

    *Total time from point of failure to return of service to e-mail users

    Source: EMC Engineering and EMC IT


    Virtual tape library

    LAN

    FC SAN

    Virtual Tape Library

    Backup Server/

    Storage Node

    Virtual Tape Library Appliance

    Emulation Engine

    Storage (LUNs)

    Backup Clients


    Tape versus disk versus virtual tape

    Tape Versus Disk Versus Virtual Tape


    Data de duplication

    Data De-duplication

    • Data de-duplication refers to removal of redundant data. In the de-duplication process, a single copy of data is maintained along with the index of the original data, so that data can be easily retrieved when required. Other than saving disk storage space and reduction in hardware costs, (storage hardware, cooling, backup media, etc), another major benefit of data de-duplication is bandwidth optimization.


    Lesson summary1

    Lesson Summary

    Key points covered in this lesson:

    • Backup topologies

      • Direct attached, LAN and SAN based backup

      • Backup in NAS environment

    • Backup to Tape

    • Backup to Disk

    • Backup to virtual tape

    • Comparison among tape, disk and virtual tape backup


    Chapter summary

    Chapter Summary

    Key points covered in this chapter:

    • Backup and Recovery considerations and process

    • Backup and Recovery operations

    • Common Backup and Recovery topologies

    • Backup technologies

      • Tape, disk, and virtual tape


    Check your knowledge

    Check Your Knowledge

    • What are three primary purposes for backup?

    • What are the three topologies that support backup operation?

    • Describe three major considerations of backup/recovery.

    • What are the advantages and disadvantages in tape and virtual tape backups?

    • What are the three levels of granularity found in Backups?

    • How backup is performed using virtual tape library?


    Backup and recovery

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    company

    For more information visit http://education.EMC.com


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