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Section 3 : Business Continuity. Backup and Recovery. Chapter 12. Chapter Objective. Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: Describe Backup/Recovery considerations Describe Backup/Recovery operations Describe Backup topologies Describe backup technologies.

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chapter objective
Chapter Objective

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Describe Backup/Recovery considerations
  • Describe Backup/Recovery operations
  • Describe Backup topologies
  • Describe backup technologies
lesson backup recovery overview
Lesson: Backup/Recovery Overview

Upon completion of this lesson, you be able to:

  • Define Backup and backup consideration
  • Describe purposes of backup
  • Explain backup granularity and restore
  • List backup methods
  • Describe backup/recovery process and operation
what is a backup
What is a Backup?
  • Backup is an additional copy of data that can be used for restore and recovery purposes
  • The Backup copy is used when the primary copy is lost or corrupted
  • This Backup copy can be created by:
    • Simply copying data (there can be one or more copies)
    • Mirroring data (the copy is always updated with whatever is written to the primary copy)
it s all about recovery
It’s All About Recovery
  • Businesses back up their data to enable its recovery in case of potential loss
  • Businesses also back up their data to comply with regulatory requirements
  • Backup purposes:
    • Disaster Recovery
      • Restores production data to an operational state after disaster
    • Operational
      • Restore data in the event of data loss or logical corruptions that may occur during routine processing
    • Archival
      • Preserve transaction records, email, and other business work products for regulatory compliance
backup considerations
Backup considerations
  • Primary considerations in selecting and implementing a specific backup strategy – the amount of data loss and downtime that a business can endure in term of RTO and RPO.
  • Retention period – duration for which a business needs to retain the backup copies.
  • Backup media type –based on retention period and accessibility.
  • Time to perform backup – to minimize any disruption to production operations.
other considerations data
Other Considerations: Data
  • Location
    • Heterogeneous platform
      • Many organization have dozens of heterogeneous platforms supporting complex solutions.
      • i.e. data warehouse environment that uses backup data from ay sources, the backup process must address these sources in terms of transactional and content integrity.
      • This process must be coordinated with all heterogeneous platforms on which the data resides.
    • Local and remote
      • Is the backup for local or remote site
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  • File size –Large-size files may use less system resource than backing up an equal amount of data comprising a large number of small-size files.
      • 10 files of 1MB size vs. 10000 files of 1KB size
  • The use of data compression can save space
      • Text files compresses really well
      • Binary files cannot compress very well
      • Files such as JPEG and ZIP are already compressed and therefore is unlikely to be compressed further
  • The number of files to be backed up also influences the backup process- need more time to search through a file system.
backup granularity level of details backup data
Backup Granularity –level of details backup data
  • Backup granularity – depends on business needs and required RTO/RPO.
    • Full backup
      • Backup of the complete data at a certain point in time
      • Advantages:
        • All files from the selected drive(i.e.) and folders are backed up to one backup set.
        • Easy to restore files- restore from the single backup set
      • Disadvantages:
        • More time consuming
        • Require more space
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    • Incremental backup
      • Copies data that has changed since the last full or incremental backup which ever has occurred more recently.

Example :

Monday – perform the first I.B of selected files and folder with the incremental option

Tuesday – perform another backup with the backup file set you created on Monday. Only files that have changed since Monday’s backup are backed up.

Wednesday – perform another backup with the backup file set you created Monday.

Only files that have changed since Tuesday’s incremental backup are backed up.

  • Advantages:
    • Backup time is faster than full backup
    • IB require less disk/space
    • You can keep different versions of the same files on different backup sets
  • Disadvantages:
    • In order to store all the files, you must have all the incremental backups available.
    • Take longer time to restore a specific file since you must search more than one backup set to find the latest version of a file.
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  • Cumulative (differential) backup
    • Copies data that has changed since the last full backup
    • Saves only the files that are different or new since the last full backup

Example;

Monday – perform a full backup and save the file set.

Tuesday – perform a differential backup using the same file set.

All files that have changed since the full backup are backed up in the differential backup.

Wednesday – perform a differential backup using the same file set. All the files that have changed since Monday’s full backup are backed up.

    • Advantages:
      • D.B require very less space
      • Backup time is faster than full or IB
    • Disadvantages:
      • Restoring all your files may take longer time since you need to restore both the last differential and full backup
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  • Synthetic (constructed) full backup
    • A full backup generated from the latest full backup and all the incremental backups performed after that full backup
    • Enables full backup copy to be done offline
    • A synthetic backup is identical to a regular full backup in terms of data,
    • However it is created when data is collected from a previous, older full backup and assembled with subsequent incremental backups.
    • The incremental backup will consist only of changed information.
    • A synthetic backup would be used when time or system requirements do not allow for a full complete backup.

[ref: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/synthetic_backup.html]

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Ref: Symantec.images

backup granularity

Full Backup

Su

Su

Su

Su

Su

Cumulative (Differential) Backup

Su

Su

Su

Su

Su

M

T

W

T

F

S

M

T

W

T

F

S

M

T

W

T

F

S

M

T

W

T

F

S

Incremental Backup

Su

Su

Su

Su

Su

M

T

W

T

F

S

M

T

W

T

F

S

M

T

W

T

F

S

M

T

W

T

F

S

Amount of data backup

Backup Granularity
restore operations
Restore operations
  • Restore operations vary with the granularity of the backup.
  • A full backup provides a single repository from which data can be easily restored.
  • The restoration from IB requires the last full backup and all the IB available until the point of restoration.
  • The restoration from a cumulative backup requires the last full backup and the most recent cumulative backup.
restoring from incremental backup
Key Features

Files that have changed since the last backup are backed up

Fewest amount of files to be backed up, therefore faster backup and less storage space

Longer restore because last full and all subsequent incremental backups must be applied

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Files 1, 2, 3

File 4

Updated File 3

File 5

Files 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Incremental

Incremental

Full Backup

Incremental

Production

Restoring from Incremental Backup
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  • A full backup is performed on Monday evening.
  • Each day after that IB is performed.
  • On Tuesday, a new file (file 4 ) is added, and no other files have changed.
  • Consequently only file 4 is copied during the IB performed on Tuesday.
  • On Wednesday no new files is added, but file 3 has been modified. Therefore only the modified file 3 is copied during the IB on Wednesday evening.
  • The IB on Thursday copies only file 5.
  • On Friday morning, data corruption – need to restore data.
  • Steps in data restoration:
    • Restore all data from the full backup on Monday evening.
    • Apply the IB on Tuesday, wed and Thursday
    • Hence data can be successfully restored to its previous state
restoring from cumulative backup
Key Features

More files to be backed up, therefore it takes more time to backupand uses more storage space

Much faster restore because only the last full and the last cumulativebackup must be applied

Friday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Files 1, 2, 3

File 4

Files 4, 5

Files 4, 5, 6

Files 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Full Backup

Cumulative

Cumulative

Cumulative

Production

Restoring from Cumulative Backup
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  • A full backup is taken on Monday evening.
  • Each day after that, a cumulative backup is taken.
  • On Tuesday, file 4 added and no other data is modified since the previous full backup on Monday evening.
  • Hence, the CB on Tuesday evening copies only file 4.
  • On wed, file 5 is added.
  • The CB taking place on Wednesday evening copies both file 4 and 5 because both files have been added /modified since the last full backup.
  • On Thursday, file 6 is added- the CB on Thursday evening copies all three files, 4,5, and 6.
  • Friday-data corruption – need to restore
  • Restoration using CB:
    • Restore all data from full backup done in Monday
    • Apply only the latest cumulative backup – Thursday evening
    • the production volume data can easily be restored to its previous sate on Thursday evening.
backup methods
Backup Methods
  • Cold or offline
    • The application is not active during the backup process.
  • Hot or online
    • The application is up and running when backup is performed, users accessing their data during the backup process.
    • Is used in a situation where it is not possible to shut down the database.
    • Disadvantage: affect overall application performance.
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  • Backing up online production data is challenging because a file may be locked by the OS and cannot be copied until it is closed. There are two ways to handle this
    • Retry until file is closed and can be accessed
    • Use Open File Agents
      • These agents interact directly with the OS and enable the creation of consistent copies of open file.
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  • Point in Time (PIT) copy method is deployed in environments where the impact of downtime from a cold backup or the performance resulting from a hot backup is unacceptable.
    • Copies snapshots of changed data
    • Consumes small space and can be created very quickly
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  • In a disaster recovery environment – bare-metal recovery (BMR) – refer to backup in which all metadata, system information and application configurations are appropriate backup for a full system recovery.
  • BMR builds the base system – includes partitioning, the file layout, the OS, the applications and all the relevant configurations.
  • BMR recovers the base system first before starting the recovery of data files.
  • Notes:
    • Bare-metal restore is taking a physical machine that has crashed, and bringing it up on another physical machine.[example]-ref:http://searchdisasterrecovery.techtarget.com/podcast/What-you-need-to-know-about-bare-metal-restore-and-bare-metal-recovery
backup architecture and process
Backup Architecture and Process
  • Uses client/server architecture
  • Backup client
    • Sends backup data to backup server or storage node
    • Can be local to the server or they can reside on another server
  • Backup server
    • Receives backup metadata from the backup clients to perform its activities.
    • Manages backup operations and maintains backup catalog
  • Storage node
    • Responsible for writing data to backup device
    • In backup environment, a storage node is a host that controls backup devices.
    • Integrated with the backup server and both are hosted on the same physical platform.

Metadata Catalog

Storage Array

BackupData

Backup Data

Application Server&

Backup Client

Backup Server&

Storage Node

Tape Library

backup operation

Start of scheduled backup process

1

Backup server retrieves backup related

2

information from backup catalog

Backup server instructs storage node to

3a

load backup media in backup device

Backup server instructs backup clients to

3b

send its metadata to the backup server

and data to be backed up to storage node

3b

4

Backup clients send data to storage node

4

Storage node sends data to backup device

5

1

3a

5

Storage node sends media information to

backup server

6

2

Backup server update catalog and records

7

6

7

the status

Backup Operation

Application Server and Backup Clients

Backup Server

Storage Node

Backup Device

restore operation

Backup server scans backup catalog

1

to identify data to be restore and the

client that will receive data

Backup server instructs storage node

2

to load backup media in backup device

Data is then read and send to backup

3

client

Storage node sends restore metadata

4

to backup server

3

Backup server updates catalog

5

2

1

3

5

4

Restore Operation

Application Server and Backup Clients

Backup Server

Storage Node

Backup Device

lesson summary
Lesson Summary

Key points covered in this lesson:

  • Purposes for Backup
  • Considerations for backup and recovery
  • Backup granularity
    • Full, Cumulative, Incremental
  • Backup methods
  • Backup/recovery process and operation
lesson backup recovery topologies technologies
Lesson: Backup/Recovery Topologies & Technologies

Upon completion of this lesson, you be able to:

  • Describe backup topologies
    • Direct backup
    • LAN and LAN free backup
    • Mixed backup
  • Detail backup in NAS environment
  • Describe backup technologies
    • Backup to tape
    • Backup to disk
    • Backup to virtual tape
backup topologies
Backup Topologies
  • There are 3 basic backup topologies:
    • Direct Attached Based Backup
    • LAN Based Backup
    • SAN Based Backup
    • Mixed backup
direct attached backups

Data

Metadata

LAN

Direct Attached Backups

Backup Server

Application Server

and Backup Client

and Storage Node

Backup Device

lan based backups

LAN

LAN Based Backups

Application Server

and Backup Client

Backup Server

Metadata

Data

Backup Device

Storage Node

san based backups lan free
SAN Based Backups (LAN Free)

FC SAN

LAN

Metadata

Data

Backup Device

Backup Server

Application Server

and Backup Client

Storage Node

mixed backup
Mixed Backup

Application Server

and Backup Client

Metadata

FC SAN

LAN

Metadata

Data

Application Server

and Backup Client

Backup Server

Backup Device

Storage Node

backup in nas environment server based
Backup in NAS Environment – Server Based

Storage

LAN

FC SAN

NAS Head

Application Server

(Backup Client)

Backup Device

Backup Request

Data

Metadata

Backup Server/ Storage Node

backup in nas environment serverless
Backup in NAS Environment – Serverless

Storage

LAN

FC SAN

NAS Head

Application Server

(Backup Client)

Backup Device

Backup Request

Data

Metadata

Backup Server /

Storage Node

backup in nas environment ndmp 2 way
Backup in NAS Environment – NDMP 2-way

Storage

LAN

FC SAN

NAS Head

Application Server

(Backup Client)

Backup Device

Backup Request

Data

Metadata

Backup Server

backing up a nas device ndmp 3 way

FC SAN

LAN

LAN

Backing up a NAS Device – NDMP 3-way

NAS Head

FC SAN

Storage

Application Server

(Backup Client)

NAS Head

Backup Device

Backup Request

Data

Metadata

Backup Server

backup technology options
Backup Technology options
  • Backup to Tape
    • Physical tape library
  • Backup to Disk
  • Backup to virtual tape
    • Virtual tape library
backup to tape

Data fromStream 1

Data fromStream 2

Data fromStream 3

Tape

Backup to Tape
  • Traditional destination for backup
  • Low cost option
  • Sequential / Linear Access
  • Multiple streaming
    • Backup streams from multiple clients to a single backup device
physical tape library

Drives

Drives

Cartridges

Import/

Export

Mailbox

Linear

Robotics

System

Power Systems

Server Class Main Controller

I/O Management Unit

Front View

Back View

Physical Tape Library
tape limitations
Tape Limitations
  • Reliability
    • Restore performance
      • Mount, load to ready, rewind, dismount times
  • Sequential Access
  • Cannot be accessed by multiple hosts simultaneously
  • Controlled environment for tape storage
  • Wear and tear of tape
  • Shipping/handling challenges
  • Tape management challenges
backup to disk
Backup to Disk
  • Ease of implementation
  • Fast access
  • More Reliable
  • Random Access
  • Multiple hosts access
  • Enhanced overall backup and recovery performance
tape versus disk restore comparison
Tape versus Disk – Restore Comparison

24Minutes

DiskBackup / Restore

108Minutes

TapeBackup / Restore

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

Recovery Time in Minutes*

Typical Scenario:

  • 800 users, 75 MB mailbox
  • 60 GB database

*Total time from point of failure to return of service to e-mail users

Source: EMC Engineering and EMC IT

virtual tape library

LAN

FC SAN

Virtual Tape Library

Backup Server/

Storage Node

Virtual Tape Library Appliance

Emulation Engine

Storage (LUNs)

Backup Clients

data de duplication
Data De-duplication
  • Data de-duplication refers to removal of redundant data. In the de-duplication process, a single copy of data is maintained along with the index of the original data, so that data can be easily retrieved when required. Other than saving disk storage space and reduction in hardware costs, (storage hardware, cooling, backup media, etc), another major benefit of data de-duplication is bandwidth optimization.
lesson summary1
Lesson Summary

Key points covered in this lesson:

  • Backup topologies
    • Direct attached, LAN and SAN based backup
    • Backup in NAS environment
  • Backup to Tape
  • Backup to Disk
  • Backup to virtual tape
  • Comparison among tape, disk and virtual tape backup
chapter summary
Chapter Summary

Key points covered in this chapter:

  • Backup and Recovery considerations and process
  • Backup and Recovery operations
  • Common Backup and Recovery topologies
  • Backup technologies
    • Tape, disk, and virtual tape
check your knowledge

Check Your Knowledge
  • What are three primary purposes for backup?
  • What are the three topologies that support backup operation?
  • Describe three major considerations of backup/recovery.
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages in tape and virtual tape backups?
  • What are the three levels of granularity found in Backups?
  • How backup is performed using virtual tape library?
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