Population pyramids
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POPULATION PYRAMIDS. Objectives. WHAT is a population pyramid? HOW to read a population pyramid? Recognise SHAPES of population pyramids. IMPORTANCE of population pyramids. What is a population pyramid?.

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POPULATION PYRAMIDS

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Population pyramids

POPULATION PYRAMIDS


Objectives

Objectives

  • WHAT is a population pyramid?

  • HOW to read a population pyramid?

  • Recognise SHAPESof population pyramids.

  • IMPORTANCE of population pyramids.


What is a population pyramid

What is a population pyramid?

  • It is a diagram that gives information about the proportion of males and females in each age group.

  • Also shows:

    - proportion of young people (0 -14 )

    - proportion of working people (15 – 59)

    - proportion of elderly people (60+)

    Each age-group designation is called a COHORT


What is a population pyramid1

What is a population pyramid?

Vertical Axis - Age Groups

Elderly dependents

Working population

Young dependents

Horizontal Axis – Percentage / number


How to read a population pyramid

How to read a population pyramid?

  • Read the title e.g. country or city or racial group

  • Comment on general shape of the pyramid

  • Note the proportion of people in various age groups (cohorts)

  • Note the sex ratio

  • Interpret the data


Types of population pyramid

Types of Population Pyramid

1. Triangular-shaped

2. Beehive-shaped Pyramid

3. Rectangular-shaped Pyramid

Shape of pyramids is controlled by

  • Births (but mostly CBR!)

  • deaths, &

  • migrations.


Triangular shaped pyramid broad based pyramid

Triangular-shaped Pyramid(Broad-based Pyramid)


Broad based pyramid

Broad-based Pyramid

Title: India, 2000

Shape: Broad Base - high birth rates

Narrow Top - small elderly pop

- high death rate

Proportion: - Large proportion of young

- high young dependency

ratio

Sex Ratio: Balance pyramid - Balance sex ratio


Population pyramids

STOP

  • Where is India on the Demographic Transition Model?


Population pyramids

Indonesia

2000

Malaysia

2000


Population pyramids

Beehive-shaped Pyramid


Beehive shaped pyramid

Beehive-shaped Pyramid

Title: Singapore, 2000

Shape: Rocket-shaped / Narrow Base

– Low Birth Rates, Slow pop growth

Proportion: Large proportion of working

population, 15-59 yr old - large

group of economically active pop

Sex Ratio: Balanced pyramid


Population pyramids

Hong Kong

2000

Taiwan

2000


Population pyramids

STOP

  • Where are Beehive shaped pyramids on the Demographic Transition Model?


Population pyramids

Rectangular-shaped Pyramid


Rectangular pyramid

Rectangular Pyramid

Title: Netherlands, 2000

Shape: Rectangular-shaped - Zero Pop Growth

Narrow Base - Low Birth Rates

- Life-expectancy is high e.g. 80+

- Low death rates

Proportion: Bars of equal length - Balance

Proportion

Sex Ratio: Balance pyramid - Balance Sex

Ratio


Population pyramids

UK 2000

Netherlands

2000


Population pyramids

STOP

  • Where are Rectangular Based Pyramids on the Demographic Transition Model?


Population structure and composition

Population Structure and Composition

  • Population pyramids…show age and gender groups. How do MDC’s and LDC’s differ?

    • 1.) Sex Ratio: # of males per 100 females. In general slightly more males born, but women outlive men

      • Eur and NA 95 males: 100 females

      • World wide 102 males: 100 females


Pop structure and composition cont d

Pop Structure and Composition – cont’d.

  • 2.) Age Distribution

    • Dependency Ratio: # of people too old or young to work, compared to # of people in productive yrs.

      • % of pop under 15 = % over 65 divided by % in between 15-65 multiplied by 100

      • Tells you how many dependents for every 100 workers

      • Stage 2 countries: ratio is 1:1 (1 worker for every dependent) Dependents are young

      • Stage 4 countries ratio is 2:1 (2 workers for every dependent) Dependents are young and old


Age distribution cont d

Age Distribution – cont’d

  • Graying of the pop in MDCs – more than ¼ of all govn’t expenditures in US, Canada, Japan, and W. Eur goes to Social Security, health care, and other programs for the elderly

  • Baby Boomer Cohort in US (born 1946-1964)…what does this mean for you?

  • Generation X = 1965-1980


What do you see why

What do you see? Why?


Population pyramids

Population Pyramids in Transition


Importance of population pyramids

Importance of Population Pyramids

  • Policy Planning

    ~ future housing estates

    ~ future schools

    ~ future jobs

  • Comparison with other countries

    ~ developed (US) vs developing (India)


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