Lecture 9. Generating Energy. Adenosine Triphosphate ( ATP ). The energy currency or coin of the cell. Transfers energy from chemical bonds to endergonic (energy absorbing) reactions within the cell. ATP consists of a ribose sugar, adenine base, and 3 phosphate groups, PO 4 -2. ATP.
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ATP Shuttles Energy From Exergonic
Reactions to Endergonic Reactions
Molecules that accept and transfer H atoms and high energy electrons released by reactions.
(1)NADH: (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).
(2)FADH2 (Flavin adenine dinucleotide): A secondary H carrier, related to NADH.
Two Mechanisms of ATP Synthesis:
Oxidative and Substrate Level Phosphorylation
Three Stages of Aerobic Respiration
2. Details of Kreb’s Cycle
Electron Transport & Chemiosmosis: Generates
Most ATP Produced During Cellular Respiration
Electron Transport Chain
Fermentation Occurs When Oxygen is Unavailable
Is the process by which plants, some bacteria,
and some protistans use the energy from
sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular
respiration converts into ATP!!
6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2
CO2 + 2H2O -------> CH2O + H2O + O2 CO2 + 2H2O -------> CH2O + H2O + O2.
Transform light energy into usable form of chemical energy (ATP and NADPH).
Water is split to obtain H.
Use chemical energy (ATP and NADPH) to drive the endergonic reactions of sugar synthesis..
Light is a Spectrum of Different Lights
Visible light spectrum - Wavelength in nanometers:
380 470 520 570 610 650
VIOLET BLUEGREEN YELLOWORANGE RED
Higher Energy Lower Energy
Structure of a Chlorophyll Molecule
Light Dependent Reactions: Light Energy Trapped by Chlorophyll is Used to Split Water, Make NADPH & ATP
ATP Production Requires a Proton Gradient
Light and Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis
C4 Carbon Fixation Pathway
All Food Molecules are Fed into The Catabolic
Pathway of Aerobic Respiration