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by ETU/CW(DR). A Case Study on Learning Styles and Problem-Based learning of ITE Students. Agenda. Learning styles. Authentic PBL model. Case study settings. Observations. Feedback by students and staff. Pre and post surveys. Conclusion and recommendations.

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By etu cw dr

by ETU/CW(DR)

A Case Study

on

Learning Styles

and

Problem-Based learning of

ITE Students


By etu cw dr

Agenda

Learning styles

Authentic PBL model

Case study settings

Observations

Feedback by students and staff

Pre and post surveys

Conclusion and recommendations


By etu cw dr

VARK learning Style(developed in 1987 by Neil Fleming, Lincoln University, New Zealand)

David Kolb Experiential Learning Style

Learning Styles

Models used:


By etu cw dr

The VARK learning Style uses the three main sensory receivers:

- Vision

- Auditory

- Kinesthetic (movement)

- Read/Write

VARK Learning Styles


By etu cw dr

VARK Learning Styles

  • It is a short, simple inventory that has been well-received because:

  • • its dimensions are intuitively understood and its applications are practical.

  • • it has helped people understand each other and especially students to learn more effectively and to become more sensitive to the diversity of teaching strategies necessary to reach all students.


By etu cw dr

David Kolb on Experiential Learning Style

(CE)

concrete experience: being involved in a new experience

(AE)

active experimentation: using theories to solve problems, make decisions

(RO)

reflective observation: watching others or developing

observations about

own experience

(AC)

abstract conceptualization: creating theories to

explain observations


By etu cw dr

David Kolb Learning Styles

Kolb Learning Styles

The Accommodator is more of a risk-taker, relies on intuitive trial and error approaches to problem solving.

The Diverger is particularly adapted to viewing a situation from multiple perspectives.

The Assimilator is viewed as a thinker who specializes in inductive reasoning and the formulation of theories.

The Converger relies on common sense, is better suited to the practical application of ideas.


By etu cw dr

Problem Base Learning (PBL)

PBL is an instructional approach that uses real-life ill-structured problems as the impetus for learning.

Boud & Feletti 1997

The analysis of these problems results in acquisition of discipline knowledge and problem-solving skills.

Uribe, Klein & Sulivan, 2003


By etu cw dr

Teamwork

Integrated Knowledge

Real World Problem as Curriculum

Teacher as Activator/Facilitator

Student as Problem Solver

Problem Solving Skills

Self-Directed Learning Skills

Traditional vs Authentic PBL Model

APBL

Traditional

Teacher

Content as Curriculum

Student

Source: Authentic Problem-Based Learning Wee Keng Neo, Lynda & Kek Yih Chyn, Megan page 17


By etu cw dr

Designing the Problem

ensure the achievement of the learning outcomes

Skills Standards

identify the causes of complaints

customers’ questions and complaints are handled to achieve customer satisfaction.

the appropriate verbal and non-verbal messages are identified

“Service Recovery” action is determined


By etu cw dr

Designing the Problem

determine the availability of resources

web resources

books

newspaper articles

eTutor Digital Media Resource


By etu cw dr

Designing the Problem

craft the problem scenario

be authentic/real world/language use should be short and simple.

tap on the prior knowledge of the student

put student in a particular role that they would likely to be working in.


By etu cw dr

Context

Module: Customer Service (EM21030)

Topic: Handling Customers’ Complaint

Duration: 4 hours


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Nitec (SS)

Student Groups

Period of Pilot Run: 20 Feb 06 – 17 Mar 06

Period of Pilot Run: 22 Feb 06 – 17 Mar 06

Period of Pilot Run: 16 May 06 – 13 Jun 06

DE0407T (EC)

25 students

AD0501I (DMD)

31 students

Class OH (SS)

35 students

D10407P&R (IT)

36 students

AZ0501J (EE)

31 students

Class OJ (SS)

31 students

Staff: Ms Suryani LT/LFS/DR

Staff: Ms Tay Hwee Lan LT/LFS/AMK

Staff: Ms Joanna Seam LT/SS/CT

Ms Lam Lee Lah LT/SS/CT

Ms Siti Aminah LT/SS/CT


By etu cw dr

PBL Pilot Run Materials

Learners’ role: Customer Service Supervisor

Problem: Customer complained about poor service

Required: (a) to submit a proposal on how to improve the service standards in the department

(b) devise a service recovery strategy for the company and

(c) propose 3 service recovery strategies with strict instructions for the staff to follow.


By etu cw dr

PBL Pilot Run Materials

Click to view.

Learner Package

Click to view.

Facilitator Package

Click to view.


By etu cw dr

Learner Package

PBL Pilot Run Materials

Click to view.

Learner Package

Click to view.

Facilitator Package

+

Click to view.


By etu cw dr

Observations

Duration

Attendance

Punctuality

Content

Teamwork

Group Presentation

Solving the problem

Final Presentation

Room


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Nitec (SS)

Duration

DE0407T (EC)

AD0501I (DMD)

Class OH (SS)

D10407P&R (IT)

AZ0501J (EE)

Class OJ (SS)

The 4 hrs topic was completed in 3 lessons of 1.5 hrs each.

The 4 hrs topic was completed in 2 lessons of 2 hrs each.

The 4 hrs topic was completed in 4 lessons of 2 hrs each.

  • Preparation for the final presentation not included.

  • Students were given some time to do their research.

  • Preparation for the final presentation not included.

  • Research time also not included.

  • Students were given time to do information search in class.

  • Preparation for the final presentation was included.


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Nitec (SS)

Attendance

AD0501I ~ 75%

(DMD)

DE0407T ~ 80%

(EC)

Class OH ~77%

(SS)

D10407P&R ~ 86%

(IT)

AZ0501J ~ 74%

(EE)

Class OJ ~75%

(SS)


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Nitec (SS)

Punctuality

Needs improvement.

Most of the students took their own time to come to lesson. Most of the time the facilitator had to call the students on their mobile to ask and remind them to attend lesson.

Needs improvement.

Most of the students took their own time to come to lesson. Students had to call their classmates to come to class quickly.

Students tend to be late when it is the 1st hour lesson.

Good.

Students were usually on time for lessons.


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Nitec (SS)

Content

Students had no problem understanding the problem statement and navigating the Students’ Package.

Students had no problem understanding the problem statement and navigating the Students’ Package.

Students had no problem understanding the problem statement and navigating the Students’ Package.

In the reflection journal, students appreciate the use of the KND Chart which helped them focus their discussion.


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Nitec (SS)

Teamwork (1)

DE0407T (EC)

AD0501I (DMD)

Class OH (SS)

4 groups of 5

1 group of 6

6 groups of 5

1 group of 3

5 groups of 5

D10407P&R (IT)

AZ0501J (EE)

Class OJ (SS)

4 groups of 5

2 groups of 6

1 group of 3

5 groups of 5

1 group of 6

4 groups of 5

3 group of 4


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Business Nitec (SS)

Teamwork (2)

Group synergy: visible in some teams others lacking

Group synergy: lacking in all teams

Group synergy: visible in 2 groups but lacking in the rest of the teams

Guidance: quite independent

Guidance: needed lots of it from facilitator

Guidance: needed lots of it from the facilitator

Absenteeism: members not regular, group morale affected

Absenteeism:members not regular, group morale affected

Absenteeism: OK


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Nitec (SS)

Teamwork (3)

Group conflict: none

Group conflict: none

Group conflict: none

Sharing of knowledge: insufficient and group discussion was superficial

Sharing of knowledge: insufficient and discussion was superficial

Sharing of knowledge: insufficient and discussion was superficial

Concentration: OK

Concentration:low

Concentration: low


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Nitec (SS)

Group presentation

DE0407T (EC)All 5 teams did PowerPoint presentation

AD0501I (DMD) 3 teams did PowerPoint presentation, 1 team did role play and 1 team did a PowerPoint presentation cum role play.

Class OH (SS) All 7 teams did PowerPoint presentation

D10407P&R (IT) All the 7 teams presented using PowerPoint.

AZ0501J (EE) 3 teams did role play and 3 did PowerPoint presentation. 1 team has 1 member present.

Class OJ (SS) All 7 teams did PowerPoint presentation


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Nitec (SS)

Solving the Problem

DE0407T (EC)Of the 5 teams only 2 teams’ presentations were close to solving the problems.

Class OH (SS) Of the 7 teams only 2 teams’ presentations were close to solving the problems.

AD0501I (DMD) Of the 5 teams only 2 teams’ presentations were close to solving the problems.

D10407P&R (IT) Of the 7 teams only 2 teams’ presentations were close to solving the problems

AZ0501J (EE) Of the 6 team only 1 team’s presentation was close to solving the problem.

Class OJ (SS) Of the 7 teams only 2 teams’ presentations were close to solving the problems.


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Nitec (SS)

Final Presentation

  • Generally students were listless and did not seem interested.

  • Reasons:

  • Final presentation was too detailed and long.

  • Students do not like the traditional method of lesson delivery.

  • Generally students were listless and did not seem interested.

  • Reasons:

  • Final presentation was too detailed and long.

  • Students do not like the traditional method of lesson delivery.

  • Generally students were listless and did not seem interested.

  • Reasons:

  • Final presentation was too detailed and long.

  • Students do not like the traditional method of lesson delivery.


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Nitec (SS)

Rooms

Self Accessed Room

Presentation was done in LT1

Smart Classrooms/IT labs

Presentations were done in special rooms B6/202 and 203

Self Accessed Room

Presentation was done in Life Skills Room 24-11


By etu cw dr

Higher Nitec (IT & EC)

Nitec (DMD & EE)

Nitec (SS)

Students’ Feedback

DE0407T (EC)

AD0501I (DMD)

Class OH (SS)

About 83% like lesson to be conducted using PBL

About 70% like lesson to be conducted using PBL

About 92% like lesson to be conducted using PBL

D10407P&R (IT)

AZ0501J (EE)

Class OJ (SS)

About 89% like lesson to be conducted using PBL

About 61% like lesson to be conducted using PBL

About 95% like lesson to be conducted using PBL


By etu cw dr

Student Feedback

Yes It is challenging and gives us the opportunity to get more information.

Student DMD

Yes, I do like the lesson. I understand much better. It is fun to know more ideas. Interact more with classmates. The best thing we have experience. I want it more!!

student, Class OH


By etu cw dr

Student Feedback

“Yes! Team presentation will make us more confident in presenting in front of the crowd.”

student, Class OJ

“No I don’t like lesson to be conducted in this manner, because I like to do alone, doing in a team have many barriers, so it is better to do alone than in team, and I also don’t like to present in front of the whole class/crowd.”

Irene, Class OJ


By etu cw dr

Student Feedback

“Yes. It makes us think out of the box, identify the problems and brainstorm all the possible solutions to the problem.”

student, IT

“It trains us to analyze problems, solve it step-by-step and research for appropriate information and lastly doing a team presentation builds teamwork and is required in any jobs outside in society to do a short report and analysis. ”

student, EC

I like to solve problem with my team mates

student, EE


By etu cw dr

Staff Feedback

“I believe that our students would be receptive to PBL method of learning. However, they would require some lead time and perhaps some ‘ground work’ has to be done first to familiarize them with the processes involved in PBL.”

Staff 1

“The Lecturer in PBL becomes a facilitator and must be prepared to ask open-ended questions, monitor progress, probe, encourage critical reflection, and make suggestions and help students to create a positive learning atmosphere. This requires a high level of interpersonal skills.”

Staff 2


By etu cw dr

Staff Feedback

“There are always the initial teething problems. It should be workable as some students communicated that PBL makes them think and take ownership of their own learning.”

Staff 3

“Yes. Should be able to work for our students. A little guidance and some help with the e-tutor to explain some basic concepts and then to indicate some web-links whereby students can do further research to find answers to their problem..

Staff 4


By etu cw dr

Staff Feedback

“It is a good opportunity for our students to do the selected topic "Handling Customers' Complaint as a PBL Lesson. It creates the opportunity for them to become self-directed learners.”

Staff 5


By etu cw dr

Evaluation is defined as a study designed and conducted to assist us to assess an object’s merit and worth (Stufflebeam, 2001).

What is an Evaluation?


By etu cw dr

What we want to know from this study?

What is the learning style of our students?

Does PBL help students to learn better?

What are the students’ perception on learning by PBL method?

Research Questions


By etu cw dr

Conduct a pre survey on 6 classes undergoing PBL pilot run.

- IT/DR, EC/DR, DMD/AMK, EE/AMK, SS/CTOH, SS/CTOJ

Analysis - Consolidation of the pre-survey results

Pre Survey

Learning style of our students?


By etu cw dr

Pre Survey Results

Learning style of our students?


By etu cw dr

Pre Survey Results

Learning style of our students?


By etu cw dr

Conduct a pre-test and post-test (MCQ) on students’ understanding of the lesson.

Analysis - Consolidation of the test results

Post Survey

Does PBL help students to learn better?


By etu cw dr

Comparing the test marks by students on the pre and post test results.

Analysis – use statistical method (t-test) to scientifically prove the hypothesis.

Post Survey

Does PBL help students to learn better?


By etu cw dr

Test the hypothesis:

H0 : No sign. difference in pre and post test results

H1 : There is sign. difference in pre and post test results

SPSS (statistical software tool) to help in analysis

Post Survey Results

Does PBL help students to learn better?


By etu cw dr

Post Survey Results

Does PBL help students to learn better?

  • Result output shows that there is sign. difference in pre and post test results (by comparing the t-value obtained with the critical t-value)


By etu cw dr

Conduct a survey on the students on 5 areas

Analysis - Consolidation of the survey results

Post Survey

What are students perception on PBL?


By etu cw dr

Post Survey Results

(1)


By etu cw dr

Post Survey Results

(2)


By etu cw dr

Post Survey Results

(3)


By etu cw dr

Post Survey Results

(4)


By etu cw dr

Post Survey Results

(5)


By etu cw dr

Our answers to the 3 questions for this study:

1) Majority of our students are Visual learners and they belong to the Assimilator type of learners.

2) From the pre and post test results, it shows that PBL does help students to learn better (95% confidence level).

Conclusion


By etu cw dr

Our answers to the 3 questions for this study:

Conclusion

3) (a) Hi-NiTEC (Group 1 & 2)

about 45% for, 55% against PBL

(b) NiTEC Technical Course (Group 3 & 4)

about 35% for , 65% against PBL

(c) NiTEC Business Course (Group 5 & 6)

about 93 % for, 7% against PBL


By etu cw dr

Recommendations

In order to be more effective PBL for ITE lecturers:

Provide the teacher with training on facilitation skills;

Encourage and motivate the teacher;

Provide two teachers to co-facilitate, coach and counsel students during PBL.


By etu cw dr

Thank You!

Remember…

Telling ain’t teaching and

Listening ain’t learning

~ Bob Barkley

End of Presentation


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