Current asset management
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Current Asset Management. 7. Chapter Outline. What is current asset management Cash management and its importance Management of marketable securities Accounts receivable and inventory management Inventory management and policy decisions required Liquidity vis-à-vis returns.

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Current Asset Management

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Current asset management

Current Asset Management

7


Chapter outline

Chapter Outline

  • What is current asset management

  • Cash management and its importance

  • Management of marketable securities

  • Accounts receivable and inventory management

  • Inventory management and policy decisions required

  • Liquidity vis-à-vis returns


Cash management

Cash Management

  • Financial managers actively attempt to keep cash (non-earning asset) to a minimum

    • It is critical to have sufficient cash to assuage emergencies

    • Steps to improve overall profitability of a firm:

      • Minimize cash balances

      • Have accurate knowledge of when cash moves in and out of the firm


Reasons for holding cash balances

Reasons for Holding Cash Balances

  • Transactions balances

    • Payments towards planned expenses

  • Compensative balances for banks

    • Compensate a bank for services provided rather than paying directly for them

  • Precautionary needs

    • Emergency purposes


Cash flow cycle

Cash Flow Cycle

  • Ensure that cash inflows and outflows are synchronized for transaction purposes

    • Cash budgets is a tool used to track cash flows and ensuing balances

  • Cash flow relies on:

    • Payment pattern of customers

    • Speed at which suppliers and creditors process checks

    • Efficiency of the banking system


Cash flow cycle cont d

Cash Flow Cycle (cont’d)

  • Cash inflows are driven by sales and influenced by:

    • Type of customers

    • Customers’ geographical location

    • Product being sold

    • Industry

  • When the cash balance increases, the extra cash can be

    • Used for various payments to lenders, stockholders, government, etc

    • Used to invest in marketable securities

  • When there is a need for cash a firm can:

    • Sell the marketable securities

    • Borrow funds from short-term lenders


Expanded cash flow cycle

Expanded Cash Flow Cycle


E commerce and sales

E-commerce and Sales

  • Benefits: faster cash flow

    • Credit card companies advance cash to the retailer within 7–10 days against retailer’s with a 30 day payment terms

  • Financial managers must pay close attention to the percentage of sales generated:

    • By cash

    • By outside credit cards

    • By the company’s own credit cards


Float

Float

  • Difference between firm’s recorded amount and amount credited to the firm by a bank

  • Two types of float:

    • Mail float: Arises duet to the time it takes to deliver a check.

    • Clearing float: Arises due to the time it takes to clear a check once the payment is made

  • Both these floats do not exist anymore due to:

    • Electronic payments

    • Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act

  • Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act (Check 21)

    • Allows banks and others to electronically process a check


Improving collections and extending disbursements

Improving Collections and Extending Disbursements

  • Improving collection:

    • Setting up multiple collection centers at different locations

    • Adopt lockbox system for expeditious check clearance at lower costs

  • Extending disbursement:

    • General trend:

      • Speedup processing of incoming checks

      • Slow down payment procedures

        • Extended disbursement float – allows companies to hold onto their cash balances for as long as possible


Cost benefit analysis

Cost-Benefit Analysis

  • Allows companies to analyze the benefits, received by investing on an efficiently maintained cash management program


Cash management network

Cash Management Network


Electronic funds transfer

Electronic Funds Transfer

  • Funds are moved between computer terminals without the use of a ‘check’

    • Automated clearinghouses (ACH): Transfers information between financial institutions and between accounts using computer tape

  • International fund transfer is carried out through SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications)

    • Uses a proprietary secure messaging system

    • Each message is encrypted

    • Every money transaction is authenticated by a code, using smart card technology

    • Assumes financial liability for the accuracy, completeness, and confidentiality of transaction


International cash management

International Cash Management

  • Factors differentiating international cash management from domestic based systems:

    • Differing payment methods and/or higher popularity of electronic funds transfer

    • Subject to international boundaries, time zone differences, currency fluctuations, and interest rate changes

    • Differing banking systems and check clearing processes

    • Differing account balance management and information reporting systems

    • Cultural, tax, and accounting differences


International cash management cont d

International Cash Management (cont’d)

  • Financial managers try to keep as much cash as possible in a country with a strong currency and vice versa

  • Sweep account:

    • Allows companies to maintain zero balances

    • Excess cash is swept into an interest-earning account


An examination of yield and maturity characteristics

An Examination of Yield and Maturity Characteristics

  • Marketable securities


Marketable securities

Marketable Securities

  • When a firm has excess funds, it should be converted from cash into interest-earning securities

  • Types of securities:

    • Treasury bills: Short-term obligations of the government

    • Treasury notes: Government obligations with a maturity of 1-10 years

    • Federal agency securities: Offerings of government organizations

    • Certificate of deposit: Offered by commercial banks, savings, and other financial institutions

    • Commercial paper: Represents unsecured promissory notes issued by large business organizations

    • Banker’s acceptances: Short-term securities that arise from foreign trade


Management of accounts receivable

Management of Accounts Receivable

  • Accounts receivable as an investment

    • Should be based on the level of return earned equals or exceeds the potential gain from other investments

  • Credit policy administration

    • Credit standards

    • Terms of trade

    • Collection policy


Types of short term investments

Types of Short-Term Investments


Credit standards

Credit Standards

  • Determine the nature of credit risk based on:

    • Prior records of payment and financial stability, current net worth, and other related factors

  • 5 Cs of credit:

    • Character

    • Capital

    • Capacity

    • Conditions

    • Collateral


Credit standards cont d

Credit Standards (cont’d)

  • Dun & Bradstreet Information Services (DBIS):

    • Produces business information analysis tools

    • Publishes reference books

    • Provides computer access to information

    • The Data Universal Number System (D-U-N-S) is a unique nine-digit code assigned by DBIS to each business in its information base


Dun bradstreet report an example

Dun & Bradstreet Report – An Example


Terms of trade

Terms of Trade

  • Stated term of credit extension:

    • Has a strong impact on the eventual size of accounts receivable balance

    • Creates a need for firms to consider the use of cash discounts


Collection policy

Collection Policy

  • A number if quantitative measures applied to asses credit policy

    • Average collection period

  • Ratio of bad debts to credit sales

  • Aging of accounts receivable


An actual credit decision

An Actual Credit Decision

Accounts receivable = Sales = $10,000 = $1,667

Turnover 6

  • Brings together various elements of accounts receivable management


Inventory management

Inventory Management

  • Inventory has three basic categories:

    • Raw materials

    • Work in progress

    • Finished goods

  • Amount of inventory is affected by sales, production, and economic conditions

  • Inventory is the least of liquid assets – should provide the highest yield


Level versus seasonal production

Level versus Seasonal Production

  • Level production

    • Maximum efficiency in manpower and machinery usage

    • May result in high inventory buildup

  • Seasonal production

    • Eliminates inventory buildup problems

    • May result in unused capacity during slack periods

    • May result in overtime labor charges and overused equipment repair charges


Inventory policy in inflation and deflation

Inventory Policy in Inflation (and Deflation)

  • Inventory position can be protected in an environment of price instability by:

    • Taking moderate inventory positions

    • Hedging with a futures contract to sell at a stipulated price some months from now

  • Rapid price movements in inventory may also have a major impact on the reported income of the firm


The inventory decision model

The Inventory Decision Model

  • Carrying costs

    • Interest on funds tied up in inventory

    • Cost of warehouse space, insurance premiums, and material handling expenses

    • Implicit cost associated with the risk of obsolescence and perish-ability

  • Ordering costs

    • Cost of ordering

    • Cost of processing inventory into stock


Determining the optimum inventory level

Determining the Optimum Inventory Level


Economic ordering quantity

Economic Ordering Quantity

EOQ = 2SO ;

C

Where,

S = Total sales in units

O = Ordering cost for each order

C = Carrying cost per unit in dollars

Assuming:

EOQ = 2SO = 2 X 2,000 X $8U = $32,000 = 160,000

C $0.20 $0.20

= 400 units


Safety stocks and stock outs

Safety Stocks and Stock Outs

  • Stock out occurs when a firm is:

    • Out of a specific inventory item

    • Unable to sell or deliver the product

  • Safety stock reduces such risks

    • Increases cost of inventory due to a rise in carrying costs

    • This cost should be offset by:

      • Eliminating lost profits due to stockouts

      • Increased profits from unexpected orders


Safety stocks and stock outs cont d

Safety Stocks and Stock Outs (cont’d)

  • Assuming that;

    Average inventory = EOQ + Safety stock

    2

    Average inventory = 400 + 50

    2

    The inventory carrying costs will now increase by $50

    Carrying costs = Average inventory in units × Carrying cost per unit

    = 250 × $0.20 = $50


Just in time inventory management

Just-in-Time Inventory Management

  • Basic requirements for JIT:

    • Quality production that continually satisfies customer requirements

    • Close ties between suppliers, manufactures, and customers

    • Minimization of the level of inventory

  • Cost Savings from lower inventory:

    • On average, JIT has reduced inventory to sales ratio by 10% over the last decade


Advantages of jit

Advantages of JIT

  • Reduction in space due to reduced warehouse space requirement

  • Reduced construction and overhead expenses for utilities and manpower

  • Better technology with the development of electronic data interchange systems (EDI)

    • EDI reduces re-keying errors and duplication of forms

  • Reduction in costs from quality control

  • Elimination of waste


Areas of concern for jit

Areas of Concern for JIT

  • Integration costs

  • Parts shortages could lead to lost sales and slow growth

    • Un-forecasted increase in sales:

      • Inability to keep up with demand

    • Un-forecasted decrease in sales:

      • Inventory can pile up

  • A revaluation may be needed in high-growth industries fostering dynamic technologies


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