Why do migrants face obstacles
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Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles?. Key Issue #3. OLD/NEW. OLD obstacles: Long, and expensive passage over land or by sea Cramped and unsanitary conditions endured by 19 th century immigrants NEW obstacles: Gaining permission to a new country

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Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles?

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Why do migrants face obstacles

Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles?

Key Issue #3

Old new


  • OLD obstacles:

    • Long, and expensive passage over land or by sea

    • Cramped and unsanitary conditions endured by 19th century immigrants

  • NEW obstacles:

    • Gaining permission to a new country

    • Face hostile attitudes of citizens once they have entered the new country

Quota act of 1921 national origins act of 1924

Quota Act of 1921/National Origins Act of 1924

  • Quota Act of 1921/National Origins Act of 1924:

    • Established maximum limits on the number of people who could immigrate to the United States during a 1 year period

    • For each country that had native-born persons already living in the United States, 2 % of their number (1910 census) could immigrate each year

    • Limited Eastern Hemisphere to 150,000 per year, virtually all of whom had to be from Europe

    • Continued until 1960s without modifications

Immigration of 1965

Immigration of 1965

  • Immigration Act of 1965

    • Eliminated quotas for individual countries and placed quotas on hemispheres

    • 170,000 from Eastern Hemisphere, 120,000 from Western Hemisphere

  • 1978 Numbers:

    • hemisphere quota replaced by global quota of 290,000, including a maximum of 20,000 per country

    • Currently 620,000 global quota, no more than 7% from one country

Current laws

Current Laws

  • Current Laws:

    • Permits 480,000 family-sponsored immigrants

    • 140,000 employment-related immigrants

    • ¾ of the immigrants admitted to reunify families, primarily spouses or unmarried children of people already living in the United States

    • Skilled workers and expectionally talented professionals receive most of the remaining 1.4 of the visas

    • Others admitted by lottery under a diversity category to people from countries that historically sent few people

Current of laws

Current of Laws

  • Does not apply to refugees

  • Spouses, children, and parents of U.S. citizens are admitted without limit

  • Many well-educated Asians enter the U.S. under the skilled worker preference

    • Then bring in family under the family reunification act

Brain drain

Brain Drain

  • Brain Drain: large-scale emigration by talented people

    • Well-educated young people leave their native country for better job and teaching opportunities in North America and Europe

Temporary migration for work

Temporary Migration For Work

  • Guest Workers: citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle East

    • Take low status and low skilled jobs

    • Provide essential services such as driving buses, collecting garbage repairing streets and washing dishes

    • Send money back home; stimulate home economy

Time contract workers

Time-Contract Workers

  • Time-Contract Workers: recruited for fixed periods of time to work in mines or on plantations, many settled in their new country

Migrant vs refugee

Migrant vs Refugee

  • Migrant vs Refugee

    • United States, Canada and Western Europe treat refugees and migrants very differently

    • Migrants: not admitted unless they possess special skills or have a close relative already there’

    • Refugees: receive special treatment

Why do migrants face obstacles


  • Cuba:

    • Political refugees since 1959 revolution that brought Communist government of Fidel Castro to power

    • Settled in Florida, become prominent in politics and economy

    • 1980: Castro allowed political prisoners, criminals and mental patients to leave Cuba; 125,000 left for United States for political asylum

    • Processed in Key West and transferred to camps

    • Sponsors were expected to provide food and shelter

    • Many lived in Orange Bowl until start of football season and then transferred to army tents under I-95



  • Haiti:

    • Sailed to U.S. to flee “PAPA DOC and BABY DOC’s” dictatorships

    • U.S. drew lines differently, Castro was an ally of Soviet Union

    • U.S. officials claimed Haitians migrated for economic advancement, not political refugee

    • Haitians sue government and govt admits Haitians



  • Vietnam:

    • Fled South Vietnam after the North captures Saigon

    • Some were able to leave on U.S. helicopters to escape capture form the North

    • Others left on boats and drifted to China and Laos

    • Some drifted out to sea to find U.S. Naval ships

      • Once aboard ships could claim refugee status for the United States

    • Another surge left in the 1980s and headed for Maylaysia, Hong Kong and Thailand

U s attitudes toward immigrants

U.S. Attitudes toward Immigrants

  • Americans always regarded new arrivals with suspicion but tempered their dislike during the 19th century, helped build and expand the frontier of the United States

  • Opposition increased when the majority of immigrants ceased to come from Northern and Western Europe

    • German and Irish faced harsh prejudice from so-called “Native Americans”

    • Italians , Russians, Poles and other Southern and Eastern Europeans who came in the 1900s faced much more hostility

U s attitudes toward immigrants1

U.S. Attitudes toward Immigrants

  • 1911 study reflected these ideas towards immigrants:

    • Racially inferior

    • “inclined toward to violent crime”

    • Resisted assimilation

    • “drove old-stock citizens out of some lines of work”

U s attitudes toward immigrants2

U.S. Attitudes toward Immigrants

  • More Recent:

    • California citizens and other states have voted to deny undocumented immigrants to most public services, schools, day-care centers, and health care services

    • Difficult to enforce: reflects the unwillingness on the part of many Americans to help out needy immigrants

Guest work in europe

Guest Work in Europe

  • Guest worker in Europe:

    • Poor social conditions

    • Young man who arrives in the city alone

    • Little money for food, housing, or entertainment

    • Primary job is to send as much money as possible

    • Lead a lonely life

    • Unfamiliar language and cultural activities

    • Spend free time at local railway stations

    • Disliked by many Western Europeans and oppose government programs to improve their living conditions

    • Political parties are gaining support that support restrictions on immigrants in may European countries

Guest worker in middle east

Guest Worker in Middle East

  • Guest Worker In Middle East:

    • Fear that increasing number will spark political unrest and abandonment of traditional Islamic customs

    • Force migrants to return home if they wish to marry and prevent them from returning with wives and children

Anti immigrants


  • Anti-immigrants Politicians:

    • “if all the immigrants were thrown out of the country, then the unemployment rate would drop, and if all the immigrants were cut off from public programs , then taxes would drop”

    • Little scientific basis and have racist overtones

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