Expository Essay. Sophomore Essay #1. Choose one of the following topics: 1. Life is full of momentous events that change the course of our futures. These events may occur because of a decision that someone makes or because of uncontrollable circumstances.
Sophomore Essay #1
Choose one of the following topics:
1. Life is full of momentous events that change the course of our futures. These events may occur because of a decision that someone makes or because of uncontrollable circumstances.
Describe a momentous event in your life and explain how it affected your future in a multiple-paragraph short essay.
2. Think of something that is important to you that you learned in school or outside of school.
In several paragraphs, write a letter to your teacher explaining what you learned and why it is important to you.
The essay is the basic form of writing assigned in all academic areas. You write essays
about important concepts covered in your reading and class discussion. You research
related topics. You compose procedure (how-to) papers. You take essay tests. Anytime
you are asked to inform, explain, analyze or write persuasively about a subject, you are
developing an essay. Basic essays usually contain at least three to five paragraphs.
The purpose of an expository essay is to present important information about a specific subject.
On the following slides the basic expository is explained in detail: Introduction, body
paragraphs, and conclusion.
Hook - catches reader’s attention
Link – explains hook, gives background or summary information transitions to …
THESIS STATEMENT (subject + opinion)
Topic sentence for each body paragraph relates directly to proving thesis. Gives argument that will be presented in that body paragraph.
The rest of the paragraph offers evidence (concrete detail) to support the topic sentence and explains its importance (commentary).
Transitions are used between sentences.
The concluding sentence
4 - Demonstrates insightful and consistent purpose; focused on thesis
- Reveals critical analysis of topic through well-selected examples, data, and
- Is clearly and logically organized into well-developed introduction, body,
- Includes a variety of transitions which further ideas and paragraphs
- Uses 3 rd person point of view consistently with a unique or engaging voice
- Chooses words purposefully and precisely to fit content area
- Follows rules of standard written English for capitalization, punctuation,
spelling, and sentence formation; complex forms risked
3 - Maintains a clear purpose and generally remains focused on thesis
- Has relevant and sufficient examples, data, and/or commentary;
understanding of material evident; may have uneven development of some
- Is organized into sequential introduction, body, and concluding paragraphs
- Provides transitions to connect main ideas and paragraphs
- Uses 3 rd person point of view consistently with an appropriate voice
- Uses words which are clear and effective for content area
- Follows rules of standard written English for capitalization, punctuation,
spelling, and sentence formation
2 - Have vague purpose and may stray from thesis
- Uses irrelevant or insufficient examples, data, and/or commentary; minimal
understanding of material evident
- Shows an attempt at organization, but is missing one or more parts of the
introduction, body, or conclusion
- Provides transitions which are weak or repetitive
- Uses 3 rd person point of view inconsistently; voice inconsistent
- May have awkward word choice
- Contains noticeable errors in standard written English: capitalization,
punctuation, spelling, and sentence formation
1 - Has no evident purpose or thesis
- Uses few examples, data, and/or minimal commentary; little understanding
of material evident
- Contains only one or two paragraphs
- No transitions are evident
- Uses 1 st or 2 nd person point of view (I, you); flat or lifeless voice
- Uses words which are simple or inappropriate
- Contains frequent errors in standard written English: capitalization,
punctuation, spelling, and/or sentence formation
0 - No paper, off-task, or acts of plagiarism
An introductory paragraph catches the reader’s attention, gives some background information about the topic in general, and states the thesis. This paragraph can be divided into three parts.
1. Introductory Technique – Some teachers call this “the Hook” or “Attention Getter.”
Whichever technique you use, it must focus attention on the essay’s topic.
2. Link – This section explains the hook and leads the reader to the thesis statement. Its length depends on the type of essay. For example, if you are writing a literary analysis essay, you need to give a brief summary of the book as you lead to the thesis.
3. Thesis Statement – This is the topic sentence for the essay. It has two parts: a specific topic and your attitude about it
(subject + opinion)
1. Definition: Explain a term that is central to the thesis. This may be a dictionary definition or the writer’s definition.
2. Rhetorical Question: This question needs to be central to the thesis and answered in the essay.
3. Startling Statement or Relevant Fact: Either one can serve to interest the reader and direct attention to the thesis.
4. Quotation: A quotation from the book works especially well when writing a literary analysis essay. Remember a quotation may be any section of the book, dialogue, description, or narration.
5. Anecdote: A short interesting or humorous incident is another popular introductory technique. With this hook, the writer must be careful to keep it short in relation to the overall length of the essay.
6. History or Background Information: This type or hook gives information that establishes context for the paper.
Never start an essay with a statement such as “In this essay I am going to write about …”
The body paragraphs provide proof and support for the thesis statement. A typical expository essay includes three or more body paragraphs. The more evidence the writer can provide, the more likely the reader will accept the validity of the thesis statement.
Organization of body paragraphs in a particular essay generally follows one of the patterns listed below.
1. Chronological Order – time order
2. Order of Importance – least to most important argument
second strongest, least strong, strongest argument
3. Comparison/Contrast – showing similarities and differences
4. Cause and Effect – relationship between event and outcome
sentences within each paragraph are also smoothly connected to one another by transitional
words and phrases.
English teachers often ask students to write body paragraphs of ten or more sentences or 100 –
150 words. The purpose of this is to make sure the paragraphs will be specific and well
developed. It is a good idea to remember this when writing your essay.
On the following page is a simple pattern that shows exactly how a body paragraph is structured.
Each line represents one sentence in the body paragraph.
1. Topic sentence (TS) – This idea helps prove that the thesis statement is true.
2. Concrete Detail (CD) – A fact, example, quotation, paraphrase, or piece of evidence to back up the topic sentence.
3. Commentary (CM) – Shows why CD provides proof.
4. Commentary (CM) – Shows why CD provides proof.
5. Concrete Detail (CD) – A fact, example, quotation, paraphrase, or piece of evidence to back up topic sentence.
6. Commentary (CM) – Shows why CD provides proof.
7. Commentary (CM) – Shows why CD provides proof.
8. Concrete Detail (CD) – A fact, example, quotation, paraphrase, or piece of evidence to back up topic sentence.
9. Commentary (CM) – Shows why CD provides proof.
10. Commentary (CM) – Shows why CD provides proof.
11. Concluding sentence (CS) – This sentence is tied directly to the topic sentence, brings the paragraph to a close and serves as a transition to the next paragraph.
The concluding paragraph effectively ends the essay by summing up the discussion in a few sentences. It gives the writer one last chance to make the point.
For the beginning writer, a three part conclusion is often taught.
1. Restate the thesis in slightly different words.
2. Summarize the main points of the body paragraph.
3. Go further in explaining the significance or importance of the thesis.
1. The paragraph emphasizes the main points by summarizing them. This could be used for a fairly complex, long essay or a research paper.
2. The paragraph draws a conclusion from the body paragraphs.
3. The paragraph evaluates what has been done. This works when the essay is describing a process or a historical event.
4. The paragraph answers the question posed by the thesis statement.
5. The paragraph recommends a specific course of action. This works for a persuasive or
6. The paragraph gives a final powerful example to emphasize the main point. This, too,
works for a persuasive essay.
Transitions are very important in writing paragraphs and essays. They are the links that hold the chain of ideas together. These links occur in the manners shown below.
1. Use pronouns to refer to ideas or people previously mentioned (he, she, it, you, I, etc.).
Pronouns must agree with their noun antecedent in gender and number.
Example: When the children left the bus, they discovered that they were in an
unfamiliar neighborhood. This place had bright lights and tall trees.
2. Repeat words or phrases from one sentence to the next. This method is especially
effective between the last sentence of one paragraph and the first sentence (topic
sentence) of the next paragraph.
Example: In this situation, Jacques was very jealous. (last sentence of paragraph)
Another time, he became jealous when his mother brought his brother a gift.
(first sentence of next paragraph)
a. To introduce an example: thus, for example, for instance, to illustrate
b. To add an idea or fact: again, also, besides, furthermore, in addition, moreover, similarly
c. To establish spatial order: above, below, here, there, inside, outside, nearby, beyond, over, under
d. To establish time order: first, then, before, after, finally, meanwhile, later, second, next
e. To tie together several reasons and show cause-and-effect relationship: because, for, in the second place, since, inasmuch as, to that end
f. To restrict, to contradict, to show contrast: although, however, nevertheless, on the contrary, otherwise, instead, yet, on the other hand, despite this fact
g. To indicate a conclusion or result: therefore, in conclusion, to sum up, consequently, as a result, accordingly, in other words