Facilitation Basics

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Facilitation Basics

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1. Facilitation Basics AWOC Facilitation Workshop Norman, Oklahoma

2. Performance Objective Using instructional materials presented at the AWOC workshop, local training officers will enhance their learning and utilization of basic facilitation skills.

3. Outline Introduction What is learning facilitation? Adult learning styles How do we learn? Differences between short-term capacity and long-term memory Getting learners to learn Different types of knowledge 3 ingredients in learning 4 key learning principles Metacognition Mention some this will be in IC Core 1 – Optimizing Learning. Mention some this will be in IC Core 1 – Optimizing Learning.

4. Outline (cont.) How to make training work Various approaches Receptive training Directive training Guided discovery Exploratory learning The Learner and Facilitator Adult learning preferences Roles and competencies of a Facilitator

5. Outline (cont.) Facilitating learning activities Types of learning activities Types of skill practices Facilitation techniques Managing difficult participants

6. Facilitation Basics Definition of facilitate: (from the Latin word, facilis) to make easy As facilitators, your job is to guide the learning process and make the journey as smooth and as rewarding as possible for learners,

7. Basic Definitions Training: purpose is to create a change in learners (dogs, forecasters, etc.) that they can consistently reproduce without variation. Instruction: helps learners generalize beyond the specifics of what is taught. Education: results from life experiences and highly generalized learning principles and events. In our work as facilitator professionals (and parents, teachers, etc.), we do all three of these tasks. All of these have their place. Consider the next set of activities and choose which of these jobs are best associated with the 3 relevant facilitator skills. In our work as facilitator professionals (and parents, teachers, etc.), we do all three of these tasks. All of these have their place. Consider the next set of activities and choose which of these jobs are best associated with the 3 relevant facilitator skills.

8. Basic Definitions Log a call. Probe to clarify the problem. Fill in fields in a customer record. Display empathy for customer’s frustrations. State steps for a specific troubleshooting procedure. Draw out from the customer what she/he has already done in attempting to correct the problem. Select type of call code before filing the report. Training, instruction, and education all aim at building knowledge and skills in learners. Each offers some unique and distinct approaches, but all are necessary to help people learn. The are seldom “pure”. They can be mixed so that while training for a specific behavior we may be educating by our attitudes and by the example we create for our learners. Training, instruction, and education all aim at building knowledge and skills in learners. Each offers some unique and distinct approaches, but all are necessary to help people learn. The are seldom “pure”. They can be mixed so that while training for a specific behavior we may be educating by our attitudes and by the example we create for our learners.

9. Basic Definitions Learning: learning is change. The whole reason for training, instruction, and education is to enable people to learn. Seeking to transform learners Learning Objectives: learning objectives and outcomes should be specified and stated in measurable terms. Conditions, behavior, standards With specific and measurable objectives, you as the facilitator will always have in your mind the course where you are driving the learning and what the learners must be able to do when the course is complete and they are back on their jobs. With specific and measurable objectives, you as the facilitator will always have in your mind the course where you are driving the learning and what the learners must be able to do when the course is complete and they are back on their jobs.

10. Example of a Good Learning Objective Condition and behavior: Given a list of WSR-88D equipment groups and their primary subcomponents, you will be able to identify the functions they perform.” (Topic 1, pg. 1-3, WSR-88D Operations Course) Criterion (or standard): What is used to determine the acceptable degree that learning objectives have been attained (ex. 70% avg. score on all exams for WSR-88D Operations Course /DLOC).

11. Basic Definitions Performance Objectives (PO): provide precise, measurable statements of the behaviors that training recipients will be able to demonstrate on the job. AWOC has POs for each IC Ties into level 3 evaluation (post training)

12. Example of a Good PO

13. The Facilitator’s Mantra “Learner-centered…performance-based” Whether it’s live or distance, the one area of research on learning that has not varied in almost 50 yrs is that the effectiveness of messages itself at learning is not bound up in the delivery vehicle but rather in how the message itself is designed. The message of attempting to transform learners in AWOC will either succeed or fail based on how well we have designed it , not on whether it’s live or asynch. Whether it’s live or distance, the one area of research on learning that has not varied in almost 50 yrs is that the effectiveness of messages itself at learning is not bound up in the delivery vehicle but rather in how the message itself is designed. The message of attempting to transform learners in AWOC will either succeed or fail based on how well we have designed it , not on whether it’s live or asynch.

14. Adult Learning Strategies Short-term memory Time and capacity (10-15 sec and gone if unused) 5 to 9 “chunks” of information can be accommodated at a time Long-term memory Capacity is limitless Problem is retrieval Learning is about change. The whole reason for training, instruction, and education (all unique and distinct approaches to learning) is to enable people to learn. In AWOC, WDTB instructors, through local facilitators, will be trying to change people by transforming learners in ways that are desirable for both them and for the NWS. So, AWOC is concerned with training the human learner, not just transmitting information. To understand the human learner we start with discussing how we learn - through senses, filters, and memory (see Stolovitch and Keeps, 2003). Remember the human learner has multiple senses (sight, hearing, etc.) each with uniquely different processing capabilities. How we filter the stimuli that continually bombards us depends on our ability to process information. Research suggests that most people can hold only 5-9 items at a time in short-term memory. The size of the items depends on prior knowledge of the learner. For training and learning purposes, it is important to create meaningful chunks that condense several pieces into one. That facilitates perception, learning , and retention. For example, the four cardinal points of a compass are north (N) , east (E), west (W), and south (S) (four items to store in memory). But, if you remember the acronym , NEWS, you only have one item to store in memory. By creating a single chunk, you can reduce the short-term memory load. Long-term memory (for example, thinking about a favorite toy you played with as a child, or that radar topic back in 88D class) depends upon how distinct and unique that memory is. There is virtually limitless storage space in the long-term memory warehouse. Retrieving the information is the harder part; that depends on how it has been organized to the learner’s ability and experience levels.Learning is about change. The whole reason for training, instruction, and education (all unique and distinct approaches to learning) is to enable people to learn. In AWOC, WDTB instructors, through local facilitators, will be trying to change people by transforming learners in ways that are desirable for both them and for the NWS. So, AWOC is concerned with training the human learner, not just transmitting information. To understand the human learner we start with discussing how we learn - through senses, filters, and memory (see Stolovitch and Keeps, 2003). Remember the human learner has multiple senses (sight, hearing, etc.) each with uniquely different processing capabilities. How we filter the stimuli that continually bombards us depends on our ability to process information. Research suggests that most people can hold only 5-9 items at a time in short-term memory. The size of the items depends on prior knowledge of the learner. For training and learning purposes, it is important to create meaningful chunks that condense several pieces into one. That facilitates perception, learning , and retention. For example, the four cardinal points of a compass are north (N) , east (E), west (W), and south (S) (four items to store in memory). But, if you remember the acronym , NEWS, you only have one item to store in memory. By creating a single chunk, you can reduce the short-term memory load. Long-term memory (for example, thinking about a favorite toy you played with as a child, or that radar topic back in 88D class) depends upon how distinct and unique that memory is. There is virtually limitless storage space in the long-term memory warehouse. Retrieving the information is the harder part; that depends on how it has been organized to the learner’s ability and experience levels.

15. What You Must Know to be a Better Trainer Experts and novices process information in different ways Consider teaching a novice how to drive a stick shift SMEs are not the best at declarative knowledge; they see the world differently. SMEs are not the best at declarative knowledge; they see the world differently.

16. Types of Knowledge Declarative Knowledge that allows us to name, explain, and talk about matters Procedural Knowledge that enables us to act and do things The brain processes outside information for learning. That information is transformed into two types of knowledge, declarative and procedural. Declarative knowledge, which has evolved in humans to the highest level in any species, allows us to name, explain, and talk about things. Procedural knowledge, on the other hand, enables us to act and perform tasks. Unlike declarative knowledge, which is almost exclusively restricted to humans, procedural knowledge is available to all animals. Research on learning suggests that what we learn declaratively cannot be readily transformed into procedural knowledge unless we already possesssimilar procedural knowledge. The reverse is also true. Human learning suggests we process the two types quite differently. Think about trying to name the number of windows in your house. You probably mentally walk around the rooms in your house and count the number of windows before you just say the number. Thus, to learn someone effectively (from this training course, for example), we need to be able to modify the instruction to help us best learn the knowledge. By the way, experts in general have a very hard time converting declarative knowledge into procedural for novice learners. It is also hard for learners to process declarative instructions into procedural. That’s why in this course, we have facilitators who are there to help learners perform the training objectives and make the whole process easier. The brain processes outside information for learning. That information is transformed into two types of knowledge, declarative and procedural. Declarative knowledge, which has evolved in humans to the highest level in any species, allows us to name, explain, and talk about things. Procedural knowledge, on the other hand, enables us to act and perform tasks. Unlike declarative knowledge, which is almost exclusively restricted to humans, procedural knowledge is available to all animals. Research on learning suggests that what we learn declaratively cannot be readily transformed into procedural knowledge unless we already possesssimilar procedural knowledge. The reverse is also true. Human learning suggests we process the two types quite differently. Think about trying to name the number of windows in your house. You probably mentally walk around the rooms in your house and count the number of windows before you just say the number. Thus, to learn someone effectively (from this training course, for example), we need to be able to modify the instruction to help us best learn the knowledge. By the way, experts in general have a very hard time converting declarative knowledge into procedural for novice learners. It is also hard for learners to process declarative instructions into procedural. That’s why in this course, we have facilitators who are there to help learners perform the training objectives and make the whole process easier.

17. Key Ingredients for Learning Ability What we are born with Prior knowledge Helps us to acquire additional knowledge faster Motivation Affected by value, confidence, and mood Cognitive psychology research suggests that 3 major factors influence how much and how well we learn: ability, prior knowledge, and motivation. General ability to learn varies depending on our genes, but it can be built up, like muscles. Prior knowledge is important as we build upon what we already know and have used. Motivation is also important. Cognitive psychology research suggests that 3 major factors influence how much and how well we learn: ability, prior knowledge, and motivation. General ability to learn varies depending on our genes, but it can be built up, like muscles. Prior knowledge is important as we build upon what we already know and have used. Motivation is also important.

18. Motivation Research (see Stolovitch and Keeps, 2003) and common sense show there is a strong correlation of value to motivation. The left-hand graph illustrates this. In the right-hand graph, the data shows that if the learner feels “this is so easy, I don’t even need to try,” motivation plummets. The optimal point of motivation is where the learner has enough confidence to feel he/she can succeed, but not so much that the incentive to learn declines. Most of us are motivated by challenges (the high point on the curve) and security (“if I work at it I know I can succeed”). As far as mood goes (graph not shown), motivation is directly related. A positive learning/work environment tends to improve a person’s mood and hence, his or her motivation. But, a frivolous or manic mood might have unpredictable effects on motivation. As trainers and learners, we can influence all the factors for learning (ability, prior knowledge, and motivation) in a positive way (good news!). Research (see Stolovitch and Keeps, 2003) and common sense show there is a strong correlation of value to motivation. The left-hand graph illustrates this. In the right-hand graph, the data shows that if the learner feels “this is so easy, I don’t even need to try,” motivation plummets. The optimal point of motivation is where the learner has enough confidence to feel he/she can succeed, but not so much that the incentive to learn declines. Most of us are motivated by challenges (the high point on the curve) and security (“if I work at it I know I can succeed”). As far as mood goes (graph not shown), motivation is directly related. A positive learning/work environment tends to improve a person’s mood and hence, his or her motivation. But, a frivolous or manic mood might have unpredictable effects on motivation. As trainers and learners, we can influence all the factors for learning (ability, prior knowledge, and motivation) in a positive way (good news!).

19. Key Adult Learning Principles Readiness Experience Autonomy Action Lots of research in this area. These principles are from Malcolm Knowles , a leader in the field of adult education. He developed principles of andragogy. We will discuss each of these. Lots of research in this area. These principles are from Malcolm Knowles , a leader in the field of adult education. He developed principles of andragogy. We will discuss each of these.

20. Readiness Training (learning) can be effective in “opening an adult’s mind” to receive knowledge by: It solves a problem or avoids one for them It provides an opportunity or increased status It includes professional or personal growth To preclude wasted effort in training , and to make sure learning is receivable, the research is clear that the training , instruction, or education must be for the learners. The focus must be on the learner’s needs not on facilitator’s or organization’s needs. To preclude wasted effort in training , and to make sure learning is receivable, the research is clear that the training , instruction, or education must be for the learners. The focus must be on the learner’s needs not on facilitator’s or organization’s needs.

21. Experience A critical part of learning Must be factored into design and delivery If considered, makes learning outcomes much more effective The experience principle is that the more you factor the experience of the learners into the design and delivery of training, the more effective the learning outcome. A lot of this consideration applies to the primary trainer, or facilitator. The experience principle is that the more you factor the experience of the learners into the design and delivery of training, the more effective the learning outcome. A lot of this consideration applies to the primary trainer, or facilitator.

22. Autonomy Adult learners want to make their own decisions Adult learners want to be treated as independent, capable individuals Adult learners need opportunities to participate and contribute to training/learning activities Adults learn best if they take charge of their learning.They need all these attributes to succeed. Most examples of good training include many elements of learner autonomy. Adults learn best if they take charge of their learning.They need all these attributes to succeed. Most examples of good training include many elements of learner autonomy.

23. Action If learners can’t put the concepts taught in the classroom (or in distance) into action back on the job, their interest and learning decrease Evaluations from Winter Weather and Severe Weather WDM Workshops have verified this In training (and learning), application is very important. There needs to be an action mindset with all training activities. If a great lecture or online module is developed but there is no way forecasters can go back and apply what is taught operationally, then any interest in that subject is quickly forgotten. That is why simulations are usually rated as the highest things on workshop evaluations, because the lessons learned in simulations can be easily practiced back on the job. In training (and learning), application is very important. There needs to be an action mindset with all training activities. If a great lecture or online module is developed but there is no way forecasters can go back and apply what is taught operationally, then any interest in that subject is quickly forgotten. That is why simulations are usually rated as the highest things on workshop evaluations, because the lessons learned in simulations can be easily practiced back on the job.

24. Metacognition The 4th influence critical for successful learning Set of higher level control processes that guide our deliberate information processing 5 skills (Clarke, 1998) Kind of the mind’s operating system in charge of high-level supervisory processes. Research has demonstrated that , despite equal IQ in subjects, variations in metacog. Skills lead to greater or lesser success in learning. Kind of the mind’s operating system in charge of high-level supervisory processes. Research has demonstrated that , despite equal IQ in subjects, variations in metacog. Skills lead to greater or lesser success in learning.

25. 5 Metacognitive Skills in Learners Planning Selecting Connecting Tuning Monitoring See Table 7-1 (pg. 90) of Stolovitch and Keeps. As facilitators, we can help teach adults become better learners by helping them overcome these deficiencies and improve these skills. Remember, metacognitive abilities in adults can be developed in time by improving our training. It also will help arm them for future learning activities because they develop a process to think about their learning. Can you think of ways to improve these skills in your learners? See Table 7-1 (pg. 90) of Stolovitch and Keeps. As facilitators, we can help teach adults become better learners by helping them overcome these deficiencies and improve these skills. Remember, metacognitive abilities in adults can be developed in time by improving our training. It also will help arm them for future learning activities because they develop a process to think about their learning. Can you think of ways to improve these skills in your learners?

26. Cognitive Strategies Clustering Spatial Advance organizers Image-rich comparisons Repetition Memory Aids These are ways to help people learn. Metacog. skills develop over time, starting very early in childhood. Cognitive strategies are the mental methodologies we use as we study and learn. Unlike metacognitive skills, which are higher level, executive skills we use for any learning, our cognitive strategies for a database of thinking and learning packages that we can apply to specific learning situations. They allow us to organize a piece of learning so we can internalize it and recall it more quickly. Lincoln penny (right) example. These are ways to help people learn. Metacog. skills develop over time, starting very early in childhood. Cognitive strategies are the mental methodologies we use as we study and learn. Unlike metacognitive skills, which are higher level, executive skills we use for any learning, our cognitive strategies for a database of thinking and learning packages that we can apply to specific learning situations. They allow us to organize a piece of learning so we can internalize it and recall it more quickly. Lincoln penny (right) example.

27. Adult Learning Styles Visual (29%) Demonstrations, diagrams, charts, videos, interactive computer simulations Auditory (34%) Presentations and lectures, discussions Kinesthetic (36%) Hands-on practice Role plays simulations These are learning preferences. Use a variety of instructional strategies and media to address learner preference. Adults also process information differently: Achievers, evaluators, networkers, socializers, and observers (see pgs. 26-30 of Fac. Guide) These are learning preferences. Use a variety of instructional strategies and media to address learner preference. Adults also process information differently: Achievers, evaluators, networkers, socializers, and observers (see pgs. 26-30 of Fac. Guide)

28. Aligning Learning Activities with Preferences and Styles Use Table 3-2 (page 32 in your book) to help recognize learning styles of co-workers Use Table 3-3 to integrate your co-worker’s learning preferences and styles to the activity of choice According to the authors of your book, there are 5 recognized learning styles : 1) Achievers, 2) Evaluator, 3) Networker, 4) Socializer, and 5) Observer. According to the authors of your book, there are 5 recognized learning styles : 1) Achievers, 2) Evaluator, 3) Networker, 4) Socializer, and 5) Observer.

29. Training Approaches Receptive Water hose approach To be used sparingly Directive Follow me approach Well suited for learners with little experience with the learning content The bottom line on adult learning principles is that training can be a waste of time , for all involved, if it doesn’t work. If the focus of the training is on the learners – their needs and characteristics, the chances of success skyrocket. There are lots of innovative training approaches and many, many learning activities that have been shown to be successful with adults. The four types , according to Clark (1998) are: receptive, directive, guided discovery, and exploratory. Which one works best with a trainee depends upon the individual characteristics of the learner. Receptive is most used, but least effective. Directive learning provides trainer and organization with the greatest control. The side effects are decreased learner activities and more narrow, transfer of learning potential. The bottom line on adult learning principles is that training can be a waste of time , for all involved, if it doesn’t work. If the focus of the training is on the learners – their needs and characteristics, the chances of success skyrocket. There are lots of innovative training approaches and many, many learning activities that have been shown to be successful with adults. The four types , according to Clark (1998) are: receptive, directive, guided discovery, and exploratory. Which one works best with a trainee depends upon the individual characteristics of the learner. Receptive is most used, but least effective. Directive learning provides trainer and organization with the greatest control. The side effects are decreased learner activities and more narrow, transfer of learning potential.

30. Training Approaches Guided Discovery Shared control Case-based Similar to some types of WES simulations Can require more time These are from Table 5-1 of Stolovitch and Keeps (2003) book. To summarize, all types are different ways of approaching training. All have a place in training, but the receptive approach is the most frequently used method, and it should be the least often employed. It is telling, not training. Guided Discovery is excellent, balanced training approach for encouraging learner initiative under safe conditions. Learning results are usually stronger and more fluid (can be transferred to a broad range of situations). These are from Table 5-1 of Stolovitch and Keeps (2003) book. To summarize, all types are different ways of approaching training. All have a place in training, but the receptive approach is the most frequently used method, and it should be the least often employed. It is telling, not training. Guided Discovery is excellent, balanced training approach for encouraging learner initiative under safe conditions. Learning results are usually stronger and more fluid (can be transferred to a broad range of situations).

31. Training Approaches 4. Exploratory Self-initiated learning Provides maximum freedom for learner Requires highly self-motivated learner Low control; learner can get lost Exploratory learning is powerful for sophisticated, capable learners. It allows for greater individualization and personalization of learning. However, it requires sufficient resources, decreases trainer control, and is unpredictable in terms of specific outcomes. Exploratory learning is powerful for sophisticated, capable learners. It allows for greater individualization and personalization of learning. However, it requires sufficient resources, decreases trainer control, and is unpredictable in terms of specific outcomes.

32. Types of Learning Activities Content, Knowledge, Comprehension Intended to disseminate info, increase awareness, aid in understanding concepts, fairly passive participants Structured exercises Bridge gap between knowledge and skills, variations of the content, more interactivity, learners have some knowledge of desired content From Facilitation Basics Guide., esp. Pgs. 76-78. From Facilitation Basics Guide., esp. Pgs. 76-78.

33. Types of Learning Activities Skills Practice (see pg. 79 of Fac. Basics) Psychomotor Intellectual Interpersonal From Facilitation Basics Guide., esp. Pgs. 76-78. From Facilitation Basics Guide., esp. Pgs. 76-78.

34. Transfer Activities (the best) Action planning Performance contracting Application discussion (WES debriefs) Barriers, enablers and strategies Manager presentation

35. Response Item Consider this learning situation: “Well, this is going to be a heavy course from what I can see of the outline. I’ll just do what I’ve always done . Just plunge in and play it by ear.” Question: Which of the following metacognitive problems and possible interventions does this situation describe? A) Connecting problem B) Selecting problem C) Planning problem D) Monitoring problem E) Tuning problem

36. Response Item Q: Which of the following learning activities is the best way to teach a novice forecaster strengths and limitations of buoyancy parameters? A) Content, knowledge, comprehension B) Structured exercises C) Skill practice

37. Response Item Q: Which of the following learning activities is the best way to teach a forecaster how to issue a WCN product? A) Content, knowledge, comprehension B) Structured exercises C) Skill practice

38. Facilitation Techniques Engage learners with appropriate activities depending on skill and knowledge levels Sequencing Use appropriate simulation techniques Instructions Time Monitoring Adjusting Feedback See pgs. 89-101 in Fac. Basics. See pgs. 89-101 in Fac. Basics.

39. Evaluation Graphical representation (from Hopkins, 1998) of the three interacting components of the educational process. Evaluation is needed in training to determine the extent of learning the knowledge or skills (level 2). Measurement of performance of newly acquired skills is a type of level 3 evaluation. Graphical representation (from Hopkins, 1998) of the three interacting components of the educational process. Evaluation is needed in training to determine the extent of learning the knowledge or skills (level 2). Measurement of performance of newly acquired skills is a type of level 3 evaluation.

40. Evaluation – The 4 Levels Level 1 – Reaction (student evaluations) Level 2 – Learning (testing) Level 3 – Performance/Behavior (performance in exercises, simulations, or on the job) Level 4 – Results (organizational or business impacts) The 4 levels of evaluation were initially defined from Kirkpatrick (1959). In addition, some training practitioners refer to a 5th level , Return on Investment (ROI), developed in the 90s as business human resource divisions determined the need to measure monetary effects of training investments. In the AWOC, we will be evaluating at the first 3 levels. Evaluation of training at level 1 typically is about perceptions and has little else to offer trainers (Hodges, 2002). Level 2 evaluation is used to determine the extent that the trainee was able to meet the learning objectives. The evaluation tool , usually an objective based test, measures the extent to which the trainees acquired the knowledge or skills specified in the training program (or course). The purpose for Level 3 evaluation is to determine the extent to which the training program (or course) has met its performance objectives (we have these for each instructional component in AWOC). Level 3 evaluation in AWOC will help WDTB and others determine the extent to which forecasters have been able to apply or transfer the knowledge gained or skills acquired , to the job. Note there are often factors external to the training course design and implementation, and learner actions, that enable or disable successful outcomes in a level 3 evaluation. Some of these factors include inadequate office time/support from management to compete training, and poor facilitator (coaching) support. The purpose for level 4 (often called impact evaluation) is to determine the degree to which the training program has met its business objectives, or goals. These expectations are often determined by stakeholders (those who have a vested interest in the program) and could include measuring output increases, cost savings, timesaving, and quality improvement (Phillips, 1997). The evaluator may conduct an ROI analysis as part of this evaluation. The 4 levels of evaluation were initially defined from Kirkpatrick (1959). In addition, some training practitioners refer to a 5th level , Return on Investment (ROI), developed in the 90s as business human resource divisions determined the need to measure monetary effects of training investments. In the AWOC, we will be evaluating at the first 3 levels. Evaluation of training at level 1 typically is about perceptions and has little else to offer trainers (Hodges, 2002). Level 2 evaluation is used to determine the extent that the trainee was able to meet the learning objectives. The evaluation tool , usually an objective based test, measures the extent to which the trainees acquired the knowledge or skills specified in the training program (or course). The purpose for Level 3 evaluation is to determine the extent to which the training program (or course) has met its performance objectives (we have these for each instructional component in AWOC). Level 3 evaluation in AWOC will help WDTB and others determine the extent to which forecasters have been able to apply or transfer the knowledge gained or skills acquired , to the job. Note there are often factors external to the training course design and implementation, and learner actions, that enable or disable successful outcomes in a level 3 evaluation. Some of these factors include inadequate office time/support from management to compete training, and poor facilitator (coaching) support. The purpose for level 4 (often called impact evaluation) is to determine the degree to which the training program has met its business objectives, or goals. These expectations are often determined by stakeholders (those who have a vested interest in the program) and could include measuring output increases, cost savings, timesaving, and quality improvement (Phillips, 1997). The evaluator may conduct an ROI analysis as part of this evaluation.

41. What Instruction is Truly Valuable Opportunities must be provided to test the concepts to new problems and situations

42. Managing Difficult Participants Learners can behave in a way that disrupts learning to fulfill an individual need or agenda Label behavior (disruptive) not person Actions must allow learning to happen (professional agenda, not personal) See Table 7-1 (pg. 118-119) on dealing with disruptive behavior This is from Chapter 7 of Fac. Basics. This is from Chapter 7 of Fac. Basics.

43. Summary A facilitator’s role in training is to make learning happen and to make it easy for the trainee to apply the learning to the job.

44. Self-Assessment Role Inventory Homework Assignment: Complete Exercise 3-1 on page 46 of Facilitation Basics How do you stack up as a facilitator?

45. References Clarke, R.C., 1998: Building Expertise: cognitive methods for training and performance improvement. International Society for Performance Improvement, Washington D.C. Hodges, T. K., 2002: Linking Learning to Performance: A practical guide to measuring learning and on-the-job application. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA. Hopkins, K. D., 1998: Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation. Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. Kirkpatrick, D. L., 1994: Evaluating training programs: the four levels. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA. (note: Kirkpatrick first published his four-level approach on the evaluation of training in a series of articles appearing in the journal known as the American Society of Training Directors in November-December of 1959 and January-February 1960.) McCain, D. V., and D. D. Tobey, 2004: Facilitation Basics. American Society for Training and Development, Alexandria, VA. Stolovitch H. D., and E. J. Keeps, 2003: Telling Ain't Training. American Society for Training and Development, Alexandria, VA. West, C. K., J. A. Farmer, and P.M. Wolff, 1991: Instructional Design: implications from cognitive science. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

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