Organic chem and hydrocarbons
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Organic Chem and Hydrocarbons. What’s Going on?!. Lessons 11&12 have been assigned as “independent learning” Will go over the most important points today Everything in the text and green book is FAIR GAME for the test Review game

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Organic Chem and Hydrocarbons

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Organic Chem and Hydrocarbons

What’s Going on?!

  • Lessons 11&12 have been assigned as “independent learning”

  • Will go over the most important points today

  • Everything in the text and green book is FAIR GAME for the test

  • Review game

  • Tuesday at 4 – optional study session

  • Will have some housekeeping to do next week so make sure you’re available for the whole class.

Key Terms

  • Organic Compound

  • Expanded molecular formula

  • Saturated hydrocarbon

  • Hydrocarbon

  • Structural diagram

  • Isomers

Refinery and tank storage facilities, like this one in Texas, are needed to change the hydrocarbons of crude oil to many different petroleum products. The classes and properties of hydrocarbons form one topic of study in organic chemistry.

Organic Chemistry

  • All living matter

  • Food we eat

  • Gasoline and coal (from the remnants of ancient life)

  • Wool and cotton

  • Vitamins, drugs, medicines, perfumes

  • Synthetic organics – plastics, nylon, and polyester.

Aspirin: From Organic “Salicin” to Synthesized “Acetyl Salicyclic Acid”

  • 400 BC

  • Greek physician Hippocrates prescribes the bark and leaves of the willow tree (rich in a substance called salicin) to relieve pain and fever. 1832

  • A German chemist experiments with salicin and creates salicylic acid (SA). 1897

  • Chemist, Felix Hoffmann, at Bayer in Germany, chemically synthesizes a stable form of ASA powder that relieves his father's rheumatism. The compound later becomes the active ingredient in aspirin named - "a" from acetyl, "spir" from the spirea plant (which yields salicin) and "in," a common suffix for medications. 1899

  • Bayer distributes aspirin powder to physicians to give to their patients. Aspirin is soon the number one drug worldwide.

General Properties of Inorganic vs. Organic Compounds


  • Where have we seen this before?


  • Contain H and C

  • Building blocks from which all other organic compounds can be formed

  • Mostly used to produce energy, or to make materials (plastics, nylons, etc.)

  • Major source are fossil fuels

  • Crude oil is transported to refineries where hydrocarbons are separated using a process called fractional distillation.

Origin of Fossil Fuels

  • Petroleum is formed within the crust of the earth. It is also called crude oil. Scientists think that the bodies of prehistoric sea animals and plants became trapped in sediments. After millions of years, heat and pressure changed them into crude oil and natural gas. Crude oil and natural gas are usually found together in the crust of the earth. To get the oil and gas, it is necessary to drill into the earth's crust.

  • Figure 13.2, p.p 537

Carbon – The Master Bonder

  • Has four bonding electrons

  • 4 strong covalent bonds

  • Can also bond to itself

  • Bonds mostly with H, O, N, P, S, and Cl

Make that a single….no, double…, triple!

  • Allows C to form long chains

  • Fairly stable at STP

Carbon can make fun shapes!

  • Carbon can bond together to form a variety of geometrical shapes

  • Straight chains, branched chains, rings, sheets, tubes and spheres

  • No other atoms can do this

Carbon, it’s EVERYWHERE

  • In pencils

  • Diamonds

  • Graphite

  • Charcoal

  • Natural gas, petroleum, propane, etc.

  • Human by-product, also in every major molecule in the body.

  • Used in photosynthesis

Expanding Molecular Formulas

  • How would you draw C2H6? What about C4H10?

  • C2H6 = Ethane: natural gas and by-product of petroleum refinement

  • C4H10 = Butane: liquid gas, used for cooking, lighters, etc. Also can be combined with propane to form LPG (liquid petroleum gas)

Structural, Expanded, Molecular

Isomers of C6H14 (Hexane)

Figure 13.6

pp. 540-541

Propane, Propane


  • Draw the structural diagram and give the expanded molecular formula for propane, C3H8.

  • What is the balanced combustion reaction for propane?

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