slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Media Accountability in Authoritarian and Transitional Systems The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 19

Media Accountability in Authoritarian and Transitional Systems The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 92 Views
  • Uploaded on

Session 13. Media Accountability in Authoritarian and Transitional Systems The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia By Judith Pies. Photo: imago/ecomedia/robert fishman. Features of Journalism in (Soft) A uthoritarian R egimes. Limited press freedom Limited access to information

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Media Accountability in Authoritarian and Transitional Systems The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia' - domani


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Session 13

Media Accountability in Authoritarian and Transitional SystemsThe Cases of Jordan and Tunisia

By Judith Pies

Photo: imago/ecomedia/robert fishman

slide2

Features of Journalism in (Soft) Authoritarian Regimes

  • Limited press freedom
  • Limited access to information
  • Regime-controlled access to profession
  • Direct and indirect censorship
  • Regime-controlled journalism education
  • Economic requirements limit regime-critical media outlets

photo: unesco.org.uk

slide3

Regime Dominance inHolding the Media to Acocunt

Politicalaccountability

(strong)

Market accountability

(controlled by regime)

Modes of media accountability

Media

Professional accountability

(weak)

Public accountability

(growing)

Source: Adapted from Bardoel/D‘Haenens2004

slide4

The Case of Jordan

  • Limited media liberalization since the martial law has been lifted in 1989

2002

1993

2007

2011

Opening the journalists association for ALL journalists (not only print media and state broadcasters)

Opening of the print media sector for private ownership (only since 2007 licencing as companies has been possible)

Partly opening of the broad-casting sector for private ownership (still strict govern-mental licensing controll, partly censored)

Acces to Information Law (not yet fully implemented)

Source: Adapted from Pies/Nedjaa 2013

slide5

Status Quo of Self-Regulation in Jordan

  • Under the patronage of the regime

HMC Freedoms Commitee

JPA Disciplinary Council

Symbols of how ‚self-regulation‘ functions in authoritarian regimes

  • The Higher Media Council (HMC) was meant to replace the Ministry of Information in 2001 and to support „professional journalism“.
  • The HMC Freedoms Commitee was established to moderate between media organisations and people complaining about them.
  • Members were appointed by the king.
  • Media organisations had to agree on discussing complaints
    • The HMC and the Commitee failed
  • The Jordan Press Assoication (JPA) has been instrumentalized by the regime since 1989.
  • The Disciplinary Council is meant to moderate complaints against the press .
  • Members are appointed by the JPA steering committee.
  • Decisions are legally binding.
  • Convictions can lead to a ban from the profession.
      • The number of disciplinary councils is growing

Photo: Judith Pies

slide6

Status Quo of Self-Regulation in Jordan

  • Codes of Ethics

Professional Level

The code of ethics by the Jordanian Press Association (JPA) was part of a deal between government and JPA to prevent further tightening of the press law in 2003. The deal included that parts of the code had to integrated in the press law.

Screenshot: jpa.jo

Organisational Level

Since 2007 the number of codes of ethics on the organizational level has been growing. Outlets having a code of ethics are for example Ammonnews website, Al-Ghad newspaper, Petra news agency.

Screenshot: alghad.com

Screenshot: ammonnews.net

slide7

Perception of Self-Regulation by Jordanian Journalists

  • Results from the MediaAcT-Survey (2012)

Support for sanctions

Scepticism towards formal institutions of regulation e.g. press councils

Strong support for responsible media

%

%

slide8

Table 7: Actor transparency in Jordanian online newspapers and news websites

Table 7: Actor transparency in Jordanian online newspapers and news websites

  • Media Accountability by Online Media Organisations
  • Results from a content analysis (Pies/Madanat 2011)

Actor transparency in Jordanian online newspapers and news websites

Actor Transparency partly applied

Source: Pies/Madanat 2011: 17

Production transparency in Jordanian online newspapers and news websites

Production Transparency partly applied

Source: Pies/Madanat 2011: 21

Responsive Practices in Jordanian online newspapers and news websites

Responsive practices widely applied

Source: Pies/Madanat 2011: 22

slide9

MediaAccountability Initiatives by Citizens

  • Jordanian examples

Sahafi.jo website

Aim

Collecting, editing and archiving coverage of media and journalism news in Jordan and the Arab World

Screenshot: www.sahafi.jo

Aim

Improving radio news coverage, adjusting the news agenda to local needs, supporting news gathering.

AmmanNet listeners‘ club

Screenshot: www.ammannet.net

7iber.com citizens‘ platform

Aim

Holding the media to account for what they don‘t cover. Improving media literacy, monitoring media coverage.

Screenshot: www.7iber.com

slide10

Public Accountability: A Counter-Balance to the Regime

  • Results from the MediaAcT Survey (2012)

Jordanian journalists strongly support MA mechanisms by the audience

slide11

Features of Journalism in Transitional Systems

  • Unclear boundaries of press freedom
  • Growing access to information
  • Competition between old and new journalistic actors (e.g. media outlets, journalists organisation)
  • Boom in new media
  • Fierce economic situation
  • Redefinition of relations to the field of power

Photo: Nasser Nouri/flickr.com

slide12

Re-Defining Modes of Holding the Media to Acocunt

Politicalaccountability

(still strong but fading away)

Market accountability

(growing)

Modes of media accountability

Media

Public accountability

(growing)

Professional accountability

(under discussion)

Source: Adapted from Bardoel/D‘Haenens2004

slide13

The Case of Tunisia

  • Fast media liberalization since the revolution in January 2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

2011

2012

Abolishing the Minis-try of Information and free-zing the main censor institutions (ATCE & ATI)

Creation of a national body for information and com-munication reform (INRIC)

Licensing of 12 new radio and 5 new television stations

Revisions of a new press and media law

Passing a law for access to information

Drafting regulations for an audiovisual regulatory body (HAICA)

Source: Adapted from Pies/Nedjaa 2013

Session 13 - Introduction

slide14

Status Quo of Self-Regulation in Tunisia

  • All under discussion in 2013
  • Codes of Ethics
  • Tunisian Journalists Association (SNJT) has revised its code of ethics
  • Several other codes are under discussion
  • Press council / Media council
  • A law for establishing a media council has been drafted – conditions and terms are still under discussion
  • Ombudsmen
  • Still don‘t exist but have been debated
  • Media journalism
  • Still weak but growing in importance particularly on issues of press freedom
slide15

Perception of Self-Regulation by Tunisian Journalists

  • Results from the MediaAcT-Survey (2012)

Split about sanctions

Scepticism towards formal institutions for regulation e.g. press councils

Strong support for responsible media

%

%

slide16

MediaAccountability Initiatives by Citizens

  • Tunisian examples

Nawaat.org bloggers‘ platform

Aim

Adjusting the news agenda to the „real“ needs of society. Collaborative work by journalists and bloggers.

Screenshot: www.nawaat.org

Arab Working Group for Media Monitoring

Aim

Monitoring of media coverage to evaluate fair and balanced reporting. Supporting free and fair elections.

Screenshot: www.awgmm.org

slide17

Public Accountability: A GrowingAccountability Mechanism

  • Results from the MediaAcT Survey (2012)

Tunisian journalists support MA mechanisms by the audience

slide18

Tunisiaand Jordan: Common Features

  • Public accountability plays an important role
  • to counterbalance MA from the field of power
  • To redefine the profession vis à vis societal needs
  • Transparency is still lacking
  • Due to insecure political situation
  • Due to fear of looking unprofessional
  • Formal institutions of MA are ambivalent
  • For fear of political hijacking
  • For loosing control over professional rules
  • Alternative agenda setting and watching the media from outside media organisations is important
slide19

References

Ferjani, R. 2011a. Transparency is the Order of the Day. Interview on Qantara.de, http://en.qantara.de/Transparency-Is-the-Order-of-the-Day/16972c17424i1p77/index.html

Ferjani, R. 2011b. All the sides of censorship: Online media accountability practices in pre-revolutionary Tunisia, http://www.mediaact.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/WP4/MediaAcT_Working_Paper_Tunisia.pdf

Ferjani, R. 2011b. Tunisia. The Clash of Texts and Contexts. In: Mapping Media Accountability – in Europe and Beyond, edited by Eberwein T. et al., 181-193. Köln: von Halem Verlag.

Hawatmeh, G. and J. Pies. 2011. Media Accountability under the Patronage of the Regime – The Case of Jordan. In: Mapping Media Accountability – in Europe and Beyond, edited by Eberwein T. et al., 101-113. Köln: von Halem Verlag.

Pies, J. 2013. Media accountability in transition: Results from Jordan and Tunisia. In: Journalists and Media Accountability. An International Study of News People in the Digital Age, edited by Fengler, S. et al. (Hg.) New York et al. Peter Lang.

Pies, J. and A. Nedjaa. 2013. Media Landscapes in Transition: Jordan and Tunisia. In: How fragile is media credibility? Research Magazine MediaAcT, http://www.yumpu.com/document/view/15922335/mediaact

Pies, J. and P. Madanat. 2011. Beyond State Regulation: How Online Practices Contribute to Holding the Media Accountable in Jordan. In: MediaAcT Working Paper Series, 5/2011, http://www.mediaact.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/WP4/WP4_Jordan.pdf

ad