Conquest and colonies
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Conquest and Colonies. Exploration. Spirit of discover and innovation b/c of Renaissance Money Get rid of middle man (Italian merchants) Faster routes to Asia Prestige Christianize Curiosity . Reasons for exploration. New technologies. Compass Astrolabe Mapmaking Cartographer

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Exploration

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Conquest and colonies

Conquest and Colonies

Exploration


Reasons for exploration

Spirit of discover and innovation b/c of Renaissance

Money

Get rid of middle man (Italian merchants)

Faster routes to Asia

Prestige

Christianize

Curiosity

Reasons for exploration


New technologies

New technologies

  • Compass

  • Astrolabe

  • Mapmaking

    • Cartographer

  • Shipbuilding

    • Deep-draft ships

    • Caravel


Portugal

Portugal

  • The first

  • Henry the Navigator

  • Court of sailors

  • Explored African coast

  • Goal= route from Africa to India

  • Bartolomeu Dias

    • Cape of Good Hope

  • Vasco Da Gama

    • Reached Calicut, India


Spain

spain

  • Christopher Columbus

    • Sail west to China

    • Reached the Caribbean

  • Amerigo Vespucci

  • Ferdinand Magellan

    • Circumnavigate


Exploration continues

Exploration continues

  • England

    • John Cabot- Canada

    • Sir Francis Drake-Western U.S.

  • France

    • Jacques Cartier- St Lawrence River

  • Dutch

    • Henry Hudson- Northwest passage


Spain s empire

Spain’s Empire

  • Settled colonies in America

  • Conquered the Aztecs and Incas


The caribbean

  • First region settled by the Spanish

    • Hispaniola and Cuba

  • Encomienda system

    • Colonists given land and NA to work land

    • Colonists then had to teach NA about Christianity

    • NA overworked and mistreated

  • Europeans brought diseases

    • Smallpox, tuberculosis, measles, etc.

    • NA had no resistance to diseases

The Caribbean


Cortes vs moctezuma

  • Hernan Cortes, a conquistador

  • Aztec emperor= Moctezuma II

  • Aztecs

    • Rich and powerful

    • Not popular among those they conquered

    • Capital= Tenochtitlan

  • Cortes and unhappy NA soldiers conquered Aztec Empire

Cortes vs. Moctezuma


How did cortes do it

How Did Cortes Do It?

  • Malinche- translator to Cortes

  • Metal weapons and heavy armor

  • Horses- NA had never seen horses before

  • Disease


Pizarro and peru

Wanted wealth from Inca Empire

Inca Empire weakened by disease and new ruler

Pizarro asked Atahualpa to convert to Christianity and give empire to Spain

Atahaulpa refused and was killed

Pizarro then easily took over the empire

Pizarro and Peru


Governing the americas

  • Viceroys- officials to rule in king’s name

  • Mined gold and silver

  • NA population dropped more than 90%

  • Bartolome de Las Casas- didn’t like treatment of NA

    • Replace NA slaves with African slaves

Governing the Americas


Portugal and brazil

  • Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)- imaginary line through Atlantic

    • West of line belonged to Spain

    • East of line belonged to Portugal

  • Brazil= lots of jungles

    • Made farming difficult

    • Portuguese slow to settle the region

Portugal and Brazil


New france

  • French settled in New France, aka Canada

  • Lots of fish in North Atlantic

  • Fox, lynx, otter, and other furs= hot commodities in Europe

  • French merely sent small groups of traders

  • Didn’t enslave NA- intermingled

  • French also explored south of Canada

    • Mississippi River

    • Louisiana

New France


Dutch exploration

Looking for trade opportunities

New Netherland- Hudson River Valley

New Amsterdam- New York City

Dutch colonies in America remained relatively small

Dutch focused on developing colonies in other parts of the world

Dutch Exploration


British expansion

British Expansion

  • Jamestown- first English colony

  • Pilgrims came too in 1620

    • Plymouth, Massachusetts

  • English colonists didn’t get along with NA


French and indian war

French and Indian War

  • British started settling on French territory

  • British did poorly at first

  • French eventually lost

    • Surrendered Canada and territory east of the Mississippi


Columbian exchange

Exchanging of plants, animals, and disease

America- potatoes, corn, sweet potatoes, or turkeys

Europe- coffee, oranges, rice, wheat, sheep, or cattle

New foods- healthier Europeans- lived longer

Diseases once again killed millions

Columbian Exchange


Mercantilism

  • Nation’s wealth= nation’s strength/power

  • Wealth measured by amount of gold and silver

  • 2 ways to get wealth

    • Mining and favorable balance of trade

  • Emphasis on establishment of colonies

    • Raw materials and new markets

  • Put restrictions on colonies

Mercantilism


Capitalism

  • Economy run by private individuals and companies

  • Investors willing to take risks

  • Joint-stock companies

    • Buying shares of stock in a company

    • British East India Company

Capitalism


Slave trade

  • Shortage of laborers led to slave trade

  • NA killed by diseases and wars

  • Indentured servants too expensive

  • So, Africans became slaves in America

  • Triangular trade

    • Goods from Europe to Africa- African slaves to America- American products to Europe

Slave Trade


Middle passage

Middle Passage

  • Slaves jammed into tight quarters

  • Chained together and dark

  • 3 to 6 weeks

  • 10-20% died on voyage


Colonial slavery

  • Most slaves worked on plantations

  • Living conditions were harsh

  • Enslaved Africans= property by law

    • No rights, no freedoms

  • Reaction of slaves

    • Resisted by preserving culture

    • Religion

    • Rebellions

    • Escape

Colonial Slavery


Effects of slave trade

Millions died

Deprived people of their freedoms

Future leaders of Africa gone

Divided Africans

Slave labor boosted American colonies

Those culture and descent spread in Americas

Effects of Slave Trade


The end

The End


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