Protoplasm
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Building material Suspension substance that makes up the physical basis of all living things . Carries on the process of Metabolism Synthesizes protein Produce energy Reception of food and oxygen Processes food and oxygen Eliminates waste products. PROTOPLASM. Proteins lipids

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PROTOPLASM

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Building material

Suspension substance that makes up the physical basis of all living things

Carries on the process of

Metabolism

Synthesizes protein

Produce energy

Reception of food and oxygen

Processes food and oxygen

Eliminates waste products

PROTOPLASM


Proteins

lipids

carbohydrates

nucleic acids

These are organic materials that are life supporting and are in the cells of the human body

MACROMOLECULES/organic compounds


15%

building block (amino acids)

Order of these blocks determine the function of the protein molecule which in turn gives the cell its characteristic

builds new tissue

repairs

Source of heat and energy

makes up antibodies

hormones

ENZYME CONTROL

controls speed of chemical reaction (release energy from fat)

PROTEIN


2%

non water soluble

stores energy

component of cell membrane

protects against cold/heat

Assists in digestive process

component of hormones

LIPIDS


CARBS

  • 1%

  • cell energy

  • releases large amounts of energy when bonds are broken thru metabolism

  • Three classifications of carbs

    • monosaccharides-glucose

    • disaccharides- sucrose

    • polysaccharids- starch


NUCLEIC ACIDS

  • 1% of the cell

  • Blueprint

  • DNA-nuclear command/control/reproduction info

  • RNA- in nucleus and cytoplasm

    • messengers or transfer agents


CHROMOSOMES

  • Composed of____________

  • Humans have a total of _________chromosomes or ________pairs

  • DNA is divided into segments called________

  • The total amount of genetic material contained in a human chromosome is called the _______ __________

  • The process of gene identification is called______

  • A karyotype is a gene map


INORGANIC COMPOUNDS


WATER

  • 80%

  • delivers energy to target molecule

  • contributes to radiation effects


Protoplasm

Organic compound

Inorganic compound

Suspended in water

water is 70-80% of protoplasm

Water

transports substances

temp. buffer

Chemical component of cell


WATER

  • 70%-85% in cell

  • holds and transports

  • temp. buffer

  • most chemical activity occur in water in cell

  • Osmosis

  • osmotic pressure=potassium and sodium and water


H2O and Inorganic compound

  • Osmosis-moving substances(water) inside and outside of cell

  • too little sodium inside or too much potassium outside cell will collapse-hypertonic


H2O and Inorganic compound

  • too much sodium inside or too little potassium outside cell will swell-

  • hypotonic


Cytoplasm

nucleus

organelles

Both filled with protoplasm

CELL STRUCTURE


cell membrane

Ribosomes

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Mitochondria

skin

Synthesize the proteins

interconnecting tubules (nucleus and cytoplasm

source of energy

Cell Structures


Golgi apparatus

Liposomes

Collects molecules produced in one part of cell-modifies and distributes to other parts of cell.

Recycles proteins,carbs, lipids from old organelles

CYTOPLASM


Brain

nuclear envelope (membrane)

chromosomes

genes

nucleolus

Genetic/metabolic info

separates from cytoplasm

protein and DNA

Large amount of RNA held here

NUCLEUS OF CELL


Anatomy of a Cell


CELLS SPECIALIZE IN ACTIVITIES


Tissue

Organs

System

Organism

Group of cells-same activity

group of tissues-specific functions

group of organs

Human body


CELL PROLIFERATION


Somatic

  • Non-reproductive

  • mitosis

  • interphase

    • period of growth between division

    • G1-where cell grows

    • S phase- DNA replicated;# of chromosomes doubled

    • G2-organelles reproduced;chromatids reproduce


  • Prophase

  • Metaphase: in terms of radiographic exposure-most sensitive stage. Also where the radiation damage can be assessed

  • Anaphase

  • Telophase


Germ - meiosis

  • Process of reduction meiosis as germ cells begin with 46 chromosomes from the male (sperm) and female (ova) but must be reduced in half Malignant-abnormal division

  • More chromatin (contains genetic material)

  • Increased rate of nuclear material to cytoplasm


GERM CELLS

  • Reproductive

  • meiosis

  • 2 divisions

  • -2 cells with diploid somatic #

  • -divide again with haploid #


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