International Academy of Wood Science Meeting 2006
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 56

Has Thermo-chemical Conversion of Wood a Future ? by Xavier DEGLISE PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 78 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

International Academy of Wood Science Meeting 2006. Has Thermo-chemical Conversion of Wood a Future ? by Xavier DEGLISE Emeritus Professor at University Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1. Introduction Pyrolysis Gasification Carbonisation Liquefaction Conclusion.

Download Presentation

Has Thermo-chemical Conversion of Wood a Future ? by Xavier DEGLISE

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

International Academy of Wood Science Meeting 2006

Has Thermo-chemical

Conversion of Wood

a Future ?

by Xavier DEGLISE

Emeritus Professor at University Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

  • Introduction

  • Pyrolysis

  • Gasification

  • Carbonisation

  • Liquefaction

  • Conclusion

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Forest Biomass represents 2230 MTOE/year (without deforestation) around 65% of 3365 MTOE in potential Renewable Energies. Biomass could fulfill 22 % of the actual world energy needs…and Wood is the major biomass!

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Forest owner behavior

New giants: Russia, China

4. Forestry in broader context of all land uses

New services & functions:

C sequestration

But, there is a lot of issues for Forests!

3. Nature oriented management

Vulnerability and extremes

1. Climate change

2. Increased demand; incl. bio energy

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Forests resources are increasing vs time!: C sequestration

European forest sector carbon balance 1950 –1999 (Nabuurs et al. 2003) Pg C y-1= Petagram C / year =1015 gram / year

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


In eu 25 still fellings remain rather stable and the resource is growing fast

Mil. m3 over bark

800

700

600

500

Net annual increment

400

Fellings

300

200

100

0

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

In EU 25, still fellings remain rather stable, and the resource is growing fast!

Latest German inventory gave a net annual increment of 12 m3.ha-1.y-1

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Bio energy will lead to an extra demand

“Bio energy” will lead to anextra demand

Current oil price rise

~ 100 $ /ton CO2 carbon tax

Value added will be very low

…but the stove needs to burn

Suitability of residue extraction

from EU 25 forests

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Extra resource wood biomass

Extra Resource Wood Biomass ?

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Wood Residues

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Estimated potential of wood residues in the world

Estimated potential of Wood Residuesin the World

  • Overall quantity of WR * ~ 2,000 MT/y or ~ 650 MTOE/y to compare with

  • 7,000 MT/y of Forest biomass or 2 230 MTOE/y

  • WR ~ 30% of potential Forest Biomass

* Matti Parikka, Biomass and Bioenergy 27 (2004) 613–620

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Wood residues vs clean wood in france

Wood Residues vs “Clean Wood”in France

  • Overall quantity of WR: 16 MT / year to compare with

  • ~ 23 MT / Year of processed wood (5 MT/y imported)

  • ~ 40 MT / Year of Wood biologically produced by the forest

  • ~ 20 MT / Year of Fuel Wood (estimated) with 80% domestic consumption

  • WR represent an important source of Biomass (5.5 MTOE)…but is scattered!

  • WR corresponds only to 6% of the oil consumption (96 MT/y)

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Biomass upgrading into Energy or Chemicals

Co-combustion

Electricity

Heat

Biomass

Direct

Combustion

Fuel cells

SNG

DME

H2

Fischer Tropsch

hydrocarbons

Alcohols

Methanol

Ethanol

Bio-fuel

Gasification

Engine

Turbine

Pyrolysis

Direct

Liquefaction

N/A ?

Bioprocesses

N/A ?

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Overview of wood thermal processes

Overview of “Wood thermal Processes”

Wood

(Co) combustion

Pyrolysis

Gasification

Direct Liquefaction

slow

fast, flash

Atmospheric or pressurized

O2, air, H2O

H2O, critical conditions,

Hydro liquefaction (H2)

High Pressure

Direct

heating

Indirect

Heating

Flue gas

char

oil

gas

Liquid biomass

Heavy bio-oil

syngas

Upgrading treatment

Engine or Turbine

Synthesis/cleaning

Bio-fuels

Charcoal

Heat and Electricity

CH3OH, CnHm, H2

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Operating conditions of the thermal processes

Operating conditions of the thermal processes

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

  • Introduction

  • Pyrolysis

  • Gasification

  • Carbonisation

  • Liquefaction

  • Conclusion

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Pyrolysis is the key reaction of all the thermal processes

Pyrolysis is the Key Reaction of all the thermal Processes

WOOD

Cutting or Grinding

Drying

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Mechanism of the pyrolysis

Mechanism of the pyrolysis

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Operating conditions of the pyrolysis process

Operating conditions of the pyrolysis process

PAH

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


To lower the pah s

To lower the PAH’s

Naphtalene, Anthracene, Pyrene, Benzopyrene …… which are formed during the pyrolysis step of the thermal conversion, it is compulsory:

  • to decrease the Residence Time

  • to increase the Temperature

  • when it is possible!

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

  • Introduction

  • Pyrolysis

  • Gasification

  • Carbonisation

  • Liquefaction

  • Conclusion

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Possible applications of the product gas

Possible applications of the Product Gas

  • co-combustion in a coal power plant

  • co-combustion in a natural gas power plant without modifications at the burners

  • production of electric energy in a gas turbine

  • production of electric energy in a gas engine

  • production of electric energy in a fuel cell

  • as synthesis gas in the chemical industry

  • as reduction gas in the steel industry

  • for direct reduction of iron ore

  • for production of Synthetic Natural Gas by methanation

  • for production of Liquid Fuels by Fischer-Tropsch

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Main reactions

Main Reactions

  • Wood (Pyrolysis) C slightly endothermic

  • C + O2 CO2 (ΔH0= -391,6 kJ mol-1) exothermic

  • C + H2O  CO+H2 (ΔH0 = + 131,79 kJ mol-1) endothermic

  • C + CO2 2 CO (ΔH0 = + 179,3 kJ mol-1) endothermic

  • CO + H2O  CO2 + H2 (ΔH0 = - 47,49 kJ mol-1) slightly exothermic

  • C + 2H2 CH4 (ΔH0= - 22 kJ mol-1) slightly exothermic

  • With the operating parameters (Pressure, Temperature) it is possible to select a gas containing more Syngas (CO+H2) or more SNG (CH4)

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Main kinds of

Reactors for

Gasification

Updraft and Downdraft reactors have been developed since ~ 1930.

They produce a low BTU Gas (~ 6000 KJ/m3) with tars.

Actually the new systems use mainly fluidized beds and circulating fluidized beds….but they are often too complicated energy output < energy in put!

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Güssing

EC project

Tar content (g/Nm3 dry gas) in the fuel gas

Problems with Tars!


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Circulating Fluidized Bed


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Advantages of Gasification by fast Pyrolysis

in a Circulating Fluidized Bed System

  • product gas nearly free of nitrogen

  • calorific value higher than 13 MJ/Nm³

  • very low tar content due to steam gasification

  • gas quality is independent of water content in biomass feed

  • now, the apparatus are compact……not enough!

  • a wide range of feedstock can be gasified

  • possibility to use a catalyst as bed material (regeneration of catalyst in combustion zone) to influence the gas composition and gasification kinetic in a more positive way

  • But sometimes energy output < energy input!


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Circulating Fluidized Beds

Numerous systems have been developed

since 1980:

- KUNII

- FERCO

- Our (TNEE)

- RENET (Güssing)

- ………….

Example: FERCO (Battelle)


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

We have an old expertise in wood gasification in dual fluidized bed pyrolysis, until the pilot scale

A pilot with a capacity of 500Kg/H pine barks was operating in a pulp mill in 1984/1985.

Its power was around 2 MW

and it produces a medium BTU Gas (HHV around 16000 KJ/m3)

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

20 Years later….always the same process developed in the

RENET Biomass Power Station, Güssing, Austria (Schematic layout)


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Photos of the RENET Pilot

which start in Austria in 2001


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Circulating Fluidized Bed with CO2 Absorber


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Complete Syngas Process

Flue Gas

Wet

scrubber

Fly Ash

removal

Shift

Reactor

CO2

elimination

Heat

Exchangers

Gas

compression

Gasifier

Combustor

Catalyst

heat carrier

Water treatment &

steam production unit

Synthesis

Gas

Bottom Ash

Extraction

Air

Dried

Biomass

Steam

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Optimum Capacity of Gasification Processes

10t/h could be a great maximum for RW

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

  • To solve the problem of capacity, it is necessary to have a pre-treatment process producing a char from different kinds of biomass, which could be then transformed at a larger scale.

  • Such a system is proposed for the production of Hydrogen from Biomass

  • The Philosophy of this two step process could be adapted, as the optimum input feed of the gasification must be over 10T/H

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

  • Introduction

  • Pyrolysis

  • Gasification

  • Carbonisation

  • Liquefaction

  • Conclusion

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Van KREVELEN Diagram

giving the elementary

Composition and yield

of Charcoal vs

carbonization temperature

It is possible to select

which kind of Char

you want:

high Carbon content

high Yield

………………..

Porosity depends on the

heating Rate

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Low temperature pyrolysis for wood residues the chartherm process

Low temperature Pyrolysis for Wood Residues “The Chartherm Process”

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

  • Introduction

  • Pyrolysis

  • Gasification

  • Carbonisation

  • Liquefaction

  • Conclusion

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

  • Introduction

  • Pyrolysis

  • Gasification

  • Carbonisation

  • Liquefaction

  • Conclusion

Liquid fuels from Syngas

Liquid fuels from Pyrolysis

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

With Syngas we can produce

Hydrocarbons or Methanol

For hydrocarbons the main Reaction

of Fischer Tropsch Synthesis:

n CO + (m/2 +n) H2 = CnHm + nH20

Catalyst (metal oxides)

The relative proportion of CO and H2 vary as a function

of what you want: gas or diesel

This process is used in RSA, its name is SASOL,

producing around 15 Mio T/y of liquid fuel

For methanol the main reaction is:

CO+2H2 =CH3OH

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Biomass-derived Fischer-Tropsch diesel production

energy efficiency from tree-to-barrel: 44%light products: 11%, power: 14%overall energetic efficiency: about 69%


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Stepwise gasification to bio-diesel production


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

  • Introduction

  • Pyrolysis

  • Gasification

  • Carbonisation

  • Liquefaction

  • Conclusion

Liquid fuels from Syngas

Liquid fuels from Pyrolysis

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Wood liquefaction via fast pyrolysis

Wood Liquefaction via Fast Pyrolysis

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Wood liquefaction via fast pyrolysis1

Wood Liquefaction via Fast Pyrolysis

Bubbling fluid bed reactor

with electrostatic precipitator

Circulating fluid bed reactor

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Wood liquefaction via fast pyrolysis product yield vs temperature

Wood Liquefaction via Fast PyrolysisProduct Yield vs temperature

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Bio oil from fast pyrolysis

Bio-oil from fast Pyrolysis

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

  • Direct Hydrothermal Liquefaction

  • Direct hydrothermal liquefaction involves converting Wood to an oily liquid (crude oil), in a pressurized reactor with CO

  • The reaction was:

    CO + wood product = CO2 + reduced wood

    Wood react with CO, (in fact H2 coming from a shift reaction, CO+H2O = CO2+H2) in water at elevated temperatures (300-350°C) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water primarily in the liquid phase (12-20 MPa) for residence times up to 30 minutes.

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

  • Direct Hydrothermal Liquefaction(continued)

  • The overall approx. stoichiometry is:

  • 100 Kg wood + 1 mol CO = 2.2 mol CO2 + 1 mol H2O + 55 Kg of non vapor product.

  • oil yield was 33% of dry wood feed with a rather high energy content, giving a high energy yield, around 65% of the HHV of wood.

    Hydrothermal treatment is based on early work performed by the Bureau of Mines Albany Laboratory in the 1970s.

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

  • Introduction

  • Pyrolysis

  • Gasification

  • Carbonisation

  • Liquefaction

  • Conclusion

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Actually, all the thermo-chemical processes are not able to convert wood into liquid fuels.

  • The main problems are:

  • Capacity of the plant in relationship with the input feed

  • How to use different sources of dry biomass (residues from forest and wood industries, treated wood, wastes…)

  • What to do with the by-products of the different steps of the conversions (gas, liquid or solid)

  • Energy efficiency

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Idea ?

Charcoal

Treated Wood wastes

SNG

Untreated Wood Wastes

Primary Processing

Charcoal

Methanol

Gasification

CO + H2

Recovered wood from

Forest Operations

Thinnings….

Charcoal

Bio-diesel (FT)

Hydrocarbons

(FT)

Charcoal

Dry urban Wastes

Paper, cardboard

Pyrolysis

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


Has thermo chemical conversion of wood a future by xavier deglise

Questions?

IAWS Meeting 2006 XD


  • Login