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An Introduction to Environmental Fluid Mechanics (EFM)PowerPoint Presentation

An Introduction to Environmental Fluid Mechanics (EFM)

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An Introduction toEnvironmental Fluid Mechanics (EFM)

Mirmosadegh Jamali

Department of Civil Engineering

Sharif University of Technology

March 8, 2003

What is EFM?

- The study of flow and transport in surface water, groundwater, and atmosphere.
- Environmental significance
- Heat and mass transfer
- Turbulence and mixing
- Stratification

Stratification

- Most fluids are density stratified
- Variations in temperature, salinity, etc.

- Very small density differences
- Enhance horizontal motions
- Inhibit vertical mixing
- Have important environmental consequences

Research in EFM

- MIT
- Stanford University
- University of California at Berkeley
- University of British Columbia

Examples of topics in EFM

- Dispersion of contaminants in rivers, lakes, seas, groundwater, and atmosphere
- Dynamics of lakes and reservoirs
- Internal waves
- Selective withdrawal
- Two-layer hydraulics
- Wave interaction
- Hydrodynamic Stability
- Numerical, analytical, or laboratory modeling

ARD

- Flooded pit as passive treatment system for ARD:
1. dilution.

2. neutralization.

3. sulphide-metal precipitation by anaerobic sulphate reducing bacteria.

Local Precipitation

~ 7 m

Brackish Water Cap

Buoyant

ARD

Plume

Anoxic Salt Water

~ 215 m

Selective-withdrawal system

Selective withdrawal system installed in 1995

Hungry Horse dam, built in 1952

Internal Waves

- A major type of motion within a stratified body
- Play an important role in mixing and transport in reservoir
- Long characteristic time-scale

Standing surface and internal waves

- Photos:
- 1st external mode
- 1st internal mode
- 2nd external mode
- 2nd internal mode
- 3rd internal mode

Numerical Simulation

Conclusions

- Many environmental problems are fluid mechanics problems
- EFM is a fast-growing multidisciplinary field in fluid mechanics
- Many unexplored problems in EFM

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