World war i
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World War I. War Begins. Alliances the Triple Entente with United Kingdom, France & Russia Originally called the Triple Alliance Austria-Hungary, Germany,) Italy, (and then the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)). Nationalism. Militarism. Causes of World War I. Imperialism. Alliances.

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World War I

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World war i

World War I


War begins

War Begins

  • Alliances

    • the Triple Entente with United Kingdom, France & Russia

    • Originally called the Triple Alliance Austria-Hungary, Germany,) Italy, (and then the Ottoman Empire (Turkey))


World war i

Nationalism

Militarism

Causes of World War I

Imperialism

Alliances


The event

July 28, 1914: Austria-Hungary declares war against Serbia

June 1914

GavriloPrincip (Serbian nationalist) kills Sophie & Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austrian throne)

“THE EVENT”

Alliance system kicks in

Germany invades Belgium which goes against treaty to not invade Belgium

August 3: Germany declares war on Russia’s ally - France

August 1: Germany declares war on Russia (to support Austria-Hungary)

The Great War has begun

Britain declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary


German attack

German Attack

  • SchlieffenPlan

    • Created in 1905 by Germany’s Army Chief of Staff

    • Germany would go through Belgium sweeping around Paris on the west

    • The other 10% of the army would invade Russia

    • Germany feared a simultaneous attack from G.B., France, & Russia as a result of the Triple Entente

    • Called for quick defeat of France

      • Britain and Russia would be unwilling to carry on the fight


Schlieffen plan cont

Schlieffen Plan Cont.

  • It would take 6 weeks for Russia to mobilize for an attack on Germany

    • Vital that France surrender before Russia was mobilized

  • 90% of German forces would be needed to defeat France

    • Wanted to avoid French forts on the German/French border

    • Called for an attack through Belgium, Luxembourg, & Holland

    • Remaining forces would be sent east to defend against a Russian attack


Germany attacks

Germany Attacks

  • August 2, 1914: Germany invades Belgium

    • Schlieffen Plan put into action

    • Belgium resists longer than Germany had anticipated

    • Germany surprised by the speed of the Russian attack on East Prussia and by the quick reaction of the British military


War begins1

War Begins

  • Battle of the Marne (6, September 1914)

    • Allies launch fierce counter-attack against the German Army at the Marne River

    • In meeting the attack the German Army is split

    • Germans forced to retreat

    • Schlieffen Plan fails, but the German retreat is successful

    • German Army immediately builds trenches stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier

    • All hopes for a short war are lost


Warfare tactics

Warfare Tactics

  • Trench Warfare

    • Germans had the best ground

    • Many allied trenches were in terrain less than 3 ft. above sea level

    • Most frontline trenches were 6-7 ft. deep

    • Parapet: front of trench, lined with sand bags

    • Fire steps allowed soldier to see over the top

    • Trenches were built with zigzag patterns.


World war i

Parados [par-uh-dos] Fortification. A bank of earth built behind a trench or military emplacement to protect soldiers from a surprise attack from the rear.


Gallipoli

Gallipoli

  • The allies, led by the British, tried to open a Balkan front southwest of Constantinople in April 1915.

  • This led to disaster for the allies and they were forced to

    withdraw.


New technology

New Technology

  • Machine Guns

  • Tanks

  • Airplanes

  • Blimps

  • U-Boats

  • Improved artillery

  • Poison gas

  • Flame thrower


U s involvement

U.S. Involvement

  • Sinking of the Lusitania, 1915

  • The Zimmerman Telegram

  • U.S. loans to Allies growing

    • In October 1914, President Wilson allowed a $500 million dollar U.S. loan to the Triple Entente. As a neutral nation, the U.S. eventually loaned the Triple Entente $2.3 billion. U.S. loans to the Triple Alliance were only $27 million.

  • The Russian Revolution


World war i

  • World War I was considered total war

    • Involved a complete mobilization of resources

    • People involved, all citizens affected

  • Masses of men

  • Supplies

  • Increase of government powers

    • Woodrow Wilson

    • Espionage and Sedition Acts (1918)

      • Protestors imprisoned


Outcomes

Outcomes

  • The two front war combined with the British naval blockade drained German morale and productivity on the home front.

  • Unrestricted U-Boat warfare was adopted by the Germans to starve the British out of the war.

  • This led to the sinking of the Lusitania, which spurred the U.S. to enter the war on the side of the Allies


Outcomes1

Outcomes

  • As the U.S. entered the war, the German & Austrian governments had ended hostilities with Russia on the Eastern front.

  • Both sides looked for a quick and decisive end to the war in a battle to be fought somewhere on the Western front.


Outcomes cont

Outcomes, cont.

  • Initial German successes on the Western front in 1918 were nullified by successful Allied counterattacks as the Americans bolstered the Allied forces.

  • German losses coupled with anti-war sentiment led to a German request for armistice. (cease fire)

    • 11th hour, of the 11th day, of the 11th month, 1918.


Impacts of war

Impacts of War

  • Warfare in the industrial age was much different than previous wars

  • Many common tactics were outdated

  • Devastation was unimaginable

    • Physical destruction (no man’s land)

    • Massive casualties

    • 8,500,000 dead

    • 21,200,000 wounded

    • 58% of enlistees became casualties


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